Photograph identifications Top L-R: Epipactis gigantea (Stream orchid), Boerhavia coccinea (Red boerhavia), Monoptilon bellioides (Desert stars), Funastrum cynanchoides var. hartwegii (Climbing milkweed), Pluchea sericea (Arrowweed).

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      In the following names, the stressed vowel is the one preceding the stress mark. It is not always easy to ascertain where such stress should be placed, especially in the case of epithets derived from personal names. I have tried to follow the principle of maintaining the stress of the original name as outlined in the Jepson Manual, and have abandoned it only when it was just too awkward. In the case of some names, I have listed them twice, reflecting either some disagreement or conflict in the rules of pronunciation, some uncertainty on my part as to the correct pronunciation, or that simply sometimes there is no single correct pronunciation. In other instances, the way I record it is just that which sounds right to my ear.

  • xalapen'sis: my original belief was that this was an alternate spelling of halapense or halapensis, meaning of or belonging to Aleppo in northern Syria, which didn't really make sense given that it's a native species, and David Hollombe corrected me with the following: "Veronica peregrina ssp. xalapensis was described from plants collected near Xalapa, Mexico" (ref. Veronica peregrina ssp. xalapensis)
  • Xanthis'ma: a Greek name meaning "that which is dyed yellow," in reference to the flowers (ref. genus Xanthisma)
  • Xanth'ium: from a Greek word meaning "yellow" (ref. genus Xanthium)
  • xan'ti/xantia'na: named for János (John) Xántus (1825-1894), a Hungarian zoologist who collected in California and Baja. He was trained as a lawyer, served in the Hungarian Army, He came to the United States in 1850, worked as a druggist, bookseller and teacher, then joined the Army in 1855 and served as a hospital steward at Fort Riley, Kansas and Fort Tejon, California. From January, 1859 to August, 1861 he was a tidal observer for the U.S. Coast Survey at Cape San Lucas, Baja California, after which he was briefly appointed U.S. Consul at Manzanillo, Mexico. He made extensive collections for the Smithsonian Institution, particularly of birds. For some reason for a period of time he affected the aristocratic title of De Vesey and signed his name as Louis de Vesey. He returned to Hungary in 1864 and remained there for the remainder of his life. During the last thirty years of his life he was Director of the Botanical Garden of Budapest and Curator of Ethnography at the Hungarian National Museum, and made collecting expeditions to Asia (ref. Chorizanthe xanti var. leucotheca, Chorizanthe xanti var. xanti, Solanum xanti, Chaenactis xantiana, Clarkia xantiana) (Smithsonian Archives; Wikipedia)
  • xerophil'a: loving dryness (ref. Clarkia mosquinii ssp. xerophila)
  • Xerophyl'lum: with dry leaves, alluding to the tough, persistent leaves (ref. genus Xerophyllum)
  • xerophy'ta: aridity-loving
  • xer'os: dry
  • xiphio'ides: having the appearance of Xiphium, a Greek name for a Gladiolus, from xiphos, "sword," for the shape of the leaves (ref. Juncus xiphioides)
  • xylocan'thus: woody-spined
  • xylocar'pa: with woody fruits (ref. Oenothera xylocarpa)
  • Xylococ'cus: from xylon, "wood," and kokkos, "a berry," from the stone of the fruit (ref. genus Xylococcus)
  • xylopo'da: from xylon, "wood," and pod, "foot" (ref. Boechera xylopoda)
  • Xylorhi'za: from the Greek xylon, "wood," and rhiza, "root," thus meaning "a woody root" (ref. genus Xylorhiza)

 Bottom: Malibu Creek, Santa Monica Mountains.


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