L-R: Amaranthus fimbriatus (Fringed amaranth), Linanthus concinnus (San Gabriels linanthus), Physalis crassifolius (Thick-leaved ground cherry), Cirsium scariosum (Elk thistle), Machaeranthera gracilis (Slender goldenweed).


     SA-SH

       In the following names, the stressed vowel is the one preceding the stress mark. It is not always easy to ascertain where such stress should be placed, especially in the case of epithets derived from personal names. I have tried to follow the principle of maintaining the stress of the original name as outlined in the Jepson Manual, and have abandoned it only when it was just too awkward. In the case of some names, I have listed them twice, reflecting either some disagreement or conflict in the rules of pronunciation, some uncertainty on my part as to the correct pronunciation, or that simply sometimes there is no single correct pronunciation. In other instances, the way I record it is just that which sounds right to my ear.

  • sabinia'na: after Joseph Sabine (1770-1837), a London lawyer, naturalist and noted botanist, discoverer of the Sabine gull, which he found on the Ross and Perry Arctic expedition along the west coast of Greenland in 1819 and named after his brother Sir Edward Sabine.  He co-founded the Linnean Society, England's most prominent natural history society, and he was Honorary Secretary of the Horticultural Society from 1810 to 1830 and also Treasurer of the Zoological Society in 1830.  In 1832 Joseph Sabine suggested the name Pinus douglasii which English botanist and Linnean Society librarian David Don proposed for a tree species specimens of which were collected by Douglas in California and which became known as the Douglas fir (ref. Pinus sabiniana)
  • sabulo'num: sandy, or referring in some way to sand, from the Latin sabulum (ref. Astragalus sabulonum)
  • sacca'tus: resembling a bag, having pronounced sacs or nectar-producing pits (ref. Alopecurus saccatus)
  • sacchara'ta: appearing sprinkled with sugar
  • sacchari'num: having a likeness to sugar in some way, or possibly a diminutive of the genus name Saccharum (ref. Acer saccharinum)
  • Sac'charum: from the Greek sakcharon, "sugar," and other similar words in Malay and Sanskrit for "sugar or the juice made from sugar cane" (ref. genus Saccharum)
  • sachalinen'se/sachalinen'sis: from the Sakhalin Islands north of Japan (ref. Fallopia [formerly Polygonum] sachalinensis)
  • sadleria'na: after John Sadler (1837-1882), assistant to J. H. Balfour in 1854, Assistant Secretary of the Botanical Society of Edinburgh 1858-1879 and Curator of the Royal Botanic Garden at Edinburgh in 1879 (ref. Quercus sadleriana)
  • Sagi'na: from the Latin sagina, "stuffing, fattening," from the "fattening" qualities of forage on which sheep quickly thrive (ref. genus Sagina)
  • sagino'ides: like genus Sagina (ref. Sagina saginoides, i.e. the Sagina that looks like Sagina)
  • Sagittar'ia: from the Latin sagitta, "arrow," because of the leaf shape (ref. genus Sagittaria)
  • sagitta'ta/sagitta'tus: from the Latin for "arrow" and hence sagitate (ref. Balsamorhiza sagittata, Penstemon laetus var. sagittatus)
  • Salazar'ia: named after Don Jose Salazar (1823-1892), Mexican commissioner on the Boundary Survey (ref. genus Salazaria)
  • salicar'ia: resembling the willow (ref. Lythrum salicaria)
  • salicifo'lia/salicifo'lius: salix-leaved (ref. Baccharis salicifolia)
  • sali'cina: willow-like (ref. Baccharis salicina)
  • Salicor'nia: from the Greek words sal, "salt," and cornus, "a horn," because these are saline plants with hornlike branches (ref. genus Salicornia)
  • salig'na: resembling the willow (ref. Buddleja saligna [formerly Chilianthus oleaceus], Lactuca saligna)
  • sali'na/sali'nus: from the Latin sal or salis, "salt," and the -inus suffix denoting a belonging to or a resemblance to, thus salty or growing in salty places (ref. Cuscuta salina var. major, Frankenia salina, Leymus salinus)
  • salinifor'mis: having the appearance or nature of salt (ref. Carex saliniformis)
  • Sa'lix: a Latin name for the willow and meaning "to leap or spring" in reference to its fast growth (ref. genus Salix)
  • salmona'cea: the suffix -acea is a Latin adjectival suffix which indicates resemblance, similarity of color, or material out of which something is made. In this case, the limb of the corolla is salmon-orange colored (ref. Silene salmonacea)
  • Salpichro'a: from the Greek salpe, "trumpet," and chroa, "color or complexion," because of the form and color of the flowers (ref. genus Salpichroa)
  • Salso'la: from the Latin salsus for "salty" (ref. genus Salsola, also Ambrosia salsola)
  • salsugino'sus: growing in places overflowed by salt water, e.g. salt marshes (ref. Lotus salsuginosus)
  • salsu'la: alternate spelling of salsola? This taxon was first described from a salty plain near a dry lake east of Lake Baikal in Asia (ref. Sphaerophysa salsula)
  • sal'sus: from the Latin salsus, "salted," past participle of salio, "to salt or sprinkle with salt" (ref. Plagiobothrys salsus)
  • saltico'la: there are several meanings of the Latin word saltus but the one that seems to make the most sense in this context is "woodland," thus this would mean a woodland dweller although that doesn't seem to fit the habitat of this taxon. Another possibility is that it refers to salt, since the most common name for it is salt gilia, but this doesn't fit its habitat either and appears to be a misnomer based on the root salsus. David Hollombe forwarded the following to me: "The type locality of Gilia salticola was Carson Pass and the only other location cited in the original publication of Gilia alpina Eastwood not Brand (G. salticola was a replacement name for the invalid G. alpina Eastw.) was Ebbet's Pass, so most likely implication of 'saltus' in this case is "a narrow pass, ravine, mountain - valley:" (ref. Gilia salticola)
  • saltuar'ium: (ref. Eriogonum luteolum var. saltuarium)
  • Saltugil'ia: from the Latin saltus, "woodland" and the name Gilia which honors the Italian naturalist Filippo Luigi Gilii (ref. genus Saltugilia)
  • Sal'via: comes from the Latin salvus, "safe, well, sound," from its supposed medicinal value, and an herb, Salvia, used for healing (ref. genus Salvia)
  • salvifo'lius: with leaves like those of genus Salvia (ref. Cistus salvifolius)
  • Salvin'ia: after the Italian academic Antonio Maria Salvini (1633-1729), a professor of the Greek language at Florence who helped his friend the Italian botanist Pier' Antonio Micheli with his botanical studies (ref. genus Salvinia)
  • Sambu'cus: from the Greek word sambuke for a musical instrument made from elderwood, and a name used by Pliny for a tree possibly related to the elder tree (ref. genus Sambucus)
  • Samo'lus: a Latin name, probably of Celtic origin, and referring possibly to this plants curative powers (ref. genus Samolus)
  • sanbeniten'se: from San Benito County (ref. Allium howellii var. sanbenitense)
  • sanborn'ii: after Solon Shumway Sanborn (1830-1875). The following is quoted from an obituary in the San Diego Union, 11 February, 1875: "Mr. Sanborn was a native of Vermont. He graduated from the colleges of Dartmouth [A.B.] and Harvard [LL.B.]. He adopted the law as a profession. Shortly after leaving school he emigrated to California (the precise time we do not know) and attained a degree of considerable success, as a lawyer in San Francisco. Finding his health failing in the latter city, some six years ago he chose San Diego as his future residence. For some time he found great relief from his affliction (consumption) in the salubrious climate of this country, but the seeds of this terrible malady had become so thoroughly rooted in his system that for the past two years signs of slow but sure decay were painfully manifest. That the deceased was a scholar of brilliant attainment is simply a matter of course. His record as a student in the celebrated schools above mentioned more than corroborate that fact. In the practice of his profession in San Diego we believe he devoted most of his time to probate matters, in which he was quite extensively employed." His wife, Mary Lucy Sheffield of Nantucket, Mass., was a very brilliant woman and principal of a female college in Boston, Suffolk, Mass., before her marriage. Their son Sheffield became a lawyer in Oakland, California, and their daughter Mary died in her youth (ref. Allium sanbornii)
  • sanctar'um: my guess originally was that this had something to do with "sacred" from sanctus. The ending -arum is usually used to convert a personal name into a specific epithet when the name refers to two or more women. But according to David Hollombe, the name commemorates the saints Santa Barbara, Santa Ynez and Santa Rosa. The taxon was described from specimens collected in the Santa Ynez mountains near Santa Barbara and on Santa Rosa Island (ref. Erigeron sanctarum)
  • sanctor'um: sanctarum and sanctorum are similarly derived except that the former refers to female saints and the latter is used in reference either to male saints or a combination of male and female saints (ref. Eriastrum densifolium ssp. sanctorum)
  • san'fordii: after James Asa Sanford (1856-1931). The following is from an obituary in the Stockton Daily Record, April 30, 1931: "Sanford first came to Stockton in 1881 when as a druggist he entered the employ of I. D. Holden, owner of the Forty-Nine Drug Company at Main and El Dorado streets. Ten years later with Dr. Louis M. Haight, Sanford purchased the drug business and continued in the same location under the name of the Holden Drug Company. W. H. Hobin afterward bought Dr. Haight's interest in the firm at which time a branch was formed located in the Elks' building under the name of the WaKeen Drug Store. After several years Hobin retired from the drug business to enter the real estate field and Sanford maintained the drug company alone until 1929 at which time he sold out. Since that time he had been engaged with his son in the Sanford Truss and Belt company. Aside from his business career Sanford was active in civic and political affairs. For 29 years he was a trustee on the public library board and for many years was president of the body. He also served as a member of the city fire commission. As a developer of this district, he with his former business partner, Hobin, cultivated the first English walnut orchard in San Joaquin county. Born in 1856 at Steuben, Ohio, an only child, he was reared by his grandparents, his mother having died when he was a year old. At 15 he entered the University of Michigan in the college of pharmacy. Three months before graduation, he was offered a position with a drug company in Toledo, which he accepted, taking the position so that he might pay back the funds which he had borrowed for his education as soon as possible. Later he was given an honorary degree by the University of Ohio for his professional work. Botany was his major and he was particularly interested in the study of languages. It was in Toledo that he met Miss Sarah Kelly and became engaged. He then came west and, after short stays in Texas, Wyoming and Oregon, was married in Portland to Miss Kelly in 1884. Mrs. Sanford died in 1930." (ref. Sagittaria sanfordii)
  • sanguina'lis: pertaining to blood (ref. Digitaria sanguinalis)
  • sanguin'ea/sanguin'eum/sanguin'eus: blood red (ref. Sarcodes sanguinea, Ribes sanguineum)
  • Sanguisor'ba: from the Latin sanguis, "blood," and sorbere, "to soak up," from the reputed power of these plants to stop bleeding (ref. genus Sanguisorba)
  • Sanic'ula: diminutive of the Latin word sanare meaning "to heal" (ref. genus Sanicula)
  • santaro'sae: refers to the Santa Rosa basalt, a geological formation intimately associated with this species of Brodiaea, and which is at least in part for the existence of the Santa Rosa Plateau Ecological Reserve in Riverside County, which is where almost the entirety of the known population of this species resides (ref. Brodiaea santarosae)
  • Santoli'na: the genus called lavender cotton, from the Latin sanctum linum, "holy flax" (ref. genus Santolina)
  • santolino'ides: having the form of or some resemblance to Santolina, lavender cotton (ref. Chaenactis santolinoides, Ivesia santolinoides)
  • Sanvita'lia: I had previously thought that this name was in honor of Federico Sanvitali (1704-1761, alternatively spelled Sanvitale), a professor at Brescia, Italy, and author of Elementi di Architettura Civile, and that is still a possibility. However, David Hollombe has uncovered the following information. The original description of the genus was made by Jean Baptiste- Lamarck based on samples sent to him by M. Gualteri. Lamarck had a student named Federico Sanvitali (1770-1819) who was a grand-nephew of this Professor Sanvitali, and Gualteri had a student named Count Stefano Sanvitali (1764-1838) who was the latter-mentioned Federico's older brother and apparently harbored a passion for botany, so these clues at least raise the possibility that the genus was named for one or more of these individuals (ref. genus Sanvitalia)
  • Sap'ium: Umberto Quattrocchi suggests that this is probably derived from the Latin sappinus, sapinus or sappium, "a kind of fir-tree or pine-tree," possibly in turn from the Celtic sap, "fat," referring to the exudate from a damaged trunk (ref. genus Sappium)
  • Saponar'ia: sometimes called soapwort, the name derives from the Latin sapo, "soap," for its soap-producing qualities (ref. genus Saponaria, also Aloe saponaria)
  • sapphiri'num: blue (ref. Eriastrum sapphirinum)
  • saprophy'te: a plant living on dead orrganic matter, lacking chlorophyll
  • Sarcoba'tus: from the Greek sarx, "flesh," and batos, "bramble," due to the spiny stems (ref. genus Sarcobatus)
  • sarcocau'lis: fleshy-stemmed
  • Sarco'des: from the Greek words sarx, "flesh," and oeides, "like," meaning "flesh-like" (ref. genus Sarcodes)
  • Sarco'stemma/Sarcostem'ma: from the Greek sarx or sarkos, "flesh," and stemma, "crown or wreath, garland," referring to the fleshy inner corona (ref. genus Sarcostemma)
  • sargent'ii: after Charles Sprague Sargent (1841-1927), a prominent member of the Massachusetts Horticultural Society, an elected trustee of the Massachusetts Society for Promoting Agriculture, and the Arnold Arboretum's first director who served the institution for over 54 years. The child of Henrietta Gray and Ignatius Sargent, a successful Boston merchant, banker, and railroad financier, Sargent had the opportunity to pursue a career in science and horticulture. After graduating from Harvard College and serving in the Union army, Sargent spent his first horticultural years abroad touring the gardens of Europe and then at home managing the family estate and gardens of Holm Lea. The following is quoted from a website of the Harvard University Herbaria. "[Although] Sargent did not have a formal botany education [he] possesed good botanical instincts. He was called to Harvard in 1872 and soon assumed the Directorship of the Arnold Arboretum. In 1863 James Arnold of New Bedford, Massachusetts left over $100,000 to Harvard for "...the promotion of Agricultural, or Horticultural improvements...". This gift was combined with a parcel of land in Jamaica Plain given to the university in 1842 by Benjamin Bussey. Unfortunately with the small stipend of only $3,000 a year, it seemed impossible to turn the land into a flourising Arboretum. Sargent, along with Frederick Law Olmsted, undertook a massive job. They worked to convince both the Harvard Corporation and the city of Boston that it would be in Harvard's best interest if the city took the land. The city would then lease the property back to Harvard for 1,000 years, at $1 a year, with an option to renew. In that way the city of Boston would bear the cost of constructing roads and paths and Sargent's funding could go towards the development of the grounds. This was no small undertaking, but finally both parties agreed in December 1881. The Arboretum was now part of the city's "Emerald Necklace" and Olmsted and Sargent began the difficult job of planning and designing the Arboretum. Sargent served 54 years as Director of the Arboretum. During that time it grew from the original 120 acres to 250 acres. Sargent also continued his own research and writing. He wrote many books including Silva of North America, Trees of North America, and Forest Flora of Japan. He also served as editor for the journal Garden and Forest. Besides collecting plants and specimens, Sargent also acquired books and journals for the Arboretum library. The collection grew from no books in 1872 to over 40,000 by 1929. Most of these were purchased at Sargent's own expense. By the time of his death Sargent had donated his entire library to the Arboretum as well as a large financial gift for upkeep of the existing collection and the purchase of more materials. In 1954 many of the library materials of the Arnold Arboretum were moved to Cambridge and merged with the Library of the Gray Herbarium while all of the books and journals and most of the archival materials related to the living collections remained in Jamaica Plain." (ref. Callitropsis [formerly Cupressus] sargentii)
  • sarmento'sa/sarmentos'um: twiggy, with long slender runners (ref. Oenanthe sarmentosa, Eriogonum sarmentosum)
  • saroth'rae: from the Greek saron or Latinized sarum, "of the type of broom used for sweeping" (ref. Gutierrezia sarothrae)
  • sarothro'ides: broom-like (ref. Baccharis sarothroides)
  • Sarracen'ia: named for the French physician Michel Sarrasin (Sarracenus) (1659-1734), a naturalist and plant collector in Quebec, although a second source says it derives from another French physician named Jean Antoine Sarrasin (1547-1598) who translated a work of Dioscorides (ref. genus Sarracenia)
  • sarracho'ides: resembling genus Saracha. I think this must have been an error in spelling when the taxon was originally published and should have been sarachoides (ref. Solanum sarrachoides)
  • sartwellia'na: after Henry Parker Sartwell (1792-1867). The following is quoted from his entry on the Virtual American Biographies website: "Sartwell, Henry Parker, scientist, born in Pittsfield, Massachusetts, 18 April, 1792; died in Penn Yan, New York, 15 November, 1867. After receiving a classical education, he began to practise medicine at nineteen years of age. He was a surgeon in the United States Army during the second war with Great Britain, and subsequently settled in Bethel, Ontario County, New York, where he devoted himself to the study of botany. He removed to Penn Yan, New York, in 1830, where he continued to reside. His botanical labors extended over a period of forty-six years, and his collections of American plants are found in many herbariums in Europe and America. About 1846 he gave his entire attention to the study of the genus Carex, one of the most extensive and difficult of the vegetable kingdom. He then conceived the idea of gathering and grouping all the indigenous species of Carex in North America, which resulted in the publication of his work entitled Carices Americane Septentrionalis Exsic-eatae (2 vols., New York, 1848). The third part of this work, intended to include fifty new species, was begun, and more than forty species had already been collected for it, when he died. His herbarium, the labor of forty years, containing about 8,000 species, is now at Hamilton College, New York. Sartwell kept daily records of the weather for forty years previous to his death, which were published in Penn Yan, and sent to the Smithsonian Institution. Hamilton College recognized his work by conferring upon him the degree of Ph.D. in 1864." (ref. Carex sartwelliana)
  • sarraco'ides: like genus Sarracenia (ref. Solanum sarracoides)
  • sati'va/sati'vum/sati'vus: means "that which is sown," indicating the plant is a cultivated one (ref. Avena sativa, Camelina sativa, Cannabis sativa, Eruca sativa, Madia sativa, Medicago sativa, Oryza sativa, Pastinaca sativa, Vicia sativa ssp. nigra, Vicia sativa ssp. sativa, Pisum sativum, Dipsacus sativus, Raphanus sativus)
  • satura'tus: full
  • Sature'ja: a Latin name for the herb savory which was well known to the ancients, and which was recommended by Virgil as an excellent bee tree to plant around hives (ref. genus Satureja)
  • Saussur'ea: named for Swiss naturalist Horace Bénédict de Saussure (1740-1799), according to Umberto Quattrocchi, "philosopher and botanist, mountaineer, experimental petrologist and geologist, meteorologist, naturalist, traveller, a fellow of the Royal Society (1762-1786), professor at Academy of Geneva..." He was particularly interested in the botany and geology of the Alps which he crossed some 14 times. His great work was the Voyages dans les Alpes (4 vol., 1779–96). He discovered fifteen minerals, made careful measurements of atmospheric humidity, improved the thermometer and the anemometer, and developed the hair hygrometer and, probably, the first electrometer. The name also commemorates Nicolas Théodore de Saussure (1767-1845) (ref. genus Saussurea)
  • sawatchen'se: for the Sawatch Mts., Colorado, where T. S. Brandegee collected one of the specimens cited in the original publication (ref. Polygonum sawatchense)
  • saxa'tile/saxa'tilis: growing among rocks, from saxum, "rock or stone" (ref. Eriogonum saxatile, Malacothrix saxatilis)
  • saxico'la: growing among rocks
  • Saxifra'ga: from the Latin saxum, "a rock," and frango, "to break," and referring to the fact that by growing in rock crevices they appear to break rocks (ref. genus Saxifraga)
  • Saxifragop'sis: resembling Saxifraga (ref. genus Saxifragopsis)
  • saximonta'na/saximonta'num/saximonta'nus: derived from words referring to rocks (saxum, "rock or stone") and mountains (montis, "a mountain," or montanus, "belonging to a mountain or of the mountains") (ref. Festuca saximontana, Epilobium saximontanum, Juncus saximontanus, Scirpus saximontanus)
  • saxo'sa: "full of rocks," hence growing among rocks (ref. Draba corrugata var. saxosa, Dudleya saxosa ssp. aloides, Ivesia saxosa, Potentilla saxosa, Purpusia saxosa)
  • sca'ber: rough (ref. Blepharipappus scaber)
  • scaber'rima: very scabrous or rough
  • Scabio'sa: a Latin name meaning scurfy (Munz) and/or from the Latin scabies, "the itch," which the rough (scurfy) leaves might have been used to cure (Stearns and Jepson) (ref. genus Scabiosa)
  • sca'bra/sca'brida: from the Latin scabr- or scaber meaning rough or scurfy (ref. Menodora scabra, Triteleia scabra, Verbena scabra)
  • scabrel'la: somewhat rough
  • scabriglu'mis: with rough glumes, the chaffy bracts that enclose the flowers of grasses and sedges (ref. Andropogon glomeratus var. scabriglumis)
  • scan'dens: climbing
  • Scan'dix: from the Greek names skandix or skandikos which was used by Aristophanes and Theophrastus to chervil, which later became the Latin scandix (ref. genus Scandix)
  • scandular'is: Latin for shingle, possibly for the overlapping leaflets. Rydberg described the leaflets of the basal leaves as 'somewhat imbricated' or overlapping like shingles (ref. Ivesia lycopodioides ssp. scandularis)
  • scapig'era/scapig'erum: from scapus, "the stalk of a plant," and the suffix -gera meaning "bearing or having", and thus scape- or stalk-bearing (ref. Idahoa scapigera, Townsendia scapigera, Eriogonum nudum var. scapigerum)
  • scapo'ides: scapose (ref. Penstemon scapoides)
  • scapo'sa: with a conspicuous scape (ref. Raillardella scaposa)
  • scario'sum: scarious, shriveled, thin, dry, often translucent and not green; used of thin, dry organs (ref. Cirsium scariosum)
  • scelera'tus: wicked, hurtful, defiling, from the Latin scelero, "to pollute," and scelerus, "abominable" (ref. Ranunculus sceleratus)
  • Sceptrid'ium: according to the Jepson Manual, the Greek derivation of this name is "scepter, staff, from the tall, upright spore-bearing leaf" (ref. genus Sceptridium)
  • scep'trum: refers to a sceptre (ref. Gentiana sceptrum)
  • Schedonnar'dus: from the Greek schedon, "near, nearby," and nardos, "spikenard," a Himalayan plant belonging to the Valerian family whose underground stems produce a perfume used in Eastern aromatic oils. Spikenard is also a plant in the genus Aralia in North America, but this is unlikely to be the one that had a Greek name (ref. genus Schedonnardus)
  • Scheuchzer'ia: after Swiss physician, naturalist, geologist, paleontologist, author, professor of mathematics and traveller Johann Jakob Scheuchzer (1672-1733) and his brother, Swiss physician and Professor of Physics Johannes Gaspar Scheuchzer (1684-1738), author of Agrostogrophia Helveticae prodromus (1708) (ref. genus Scheuchzeria)
  • schidig'era: from the Latin meaning "bearing a splinter of wood," alluding to the coarse marginal fibers at the edge of the leaf blade (ref. Yucca schidigera)
  • Schi'nus: an ancient Greek name for another genus in the same family, Pistacia, or Pistachio (ref. genus Schinus)
  • Schis'mus: from the Greek schismos, "cleaving," referring to the split or notched lemma (ref. genus Schismus)
  • Schizach'yrium: from the Greek schizo, "to split, divide," and achyron, "chaff, husk," referring to the toothed lemma (ref. genus Schizachyrium)
  • schizolo'ba: from the Greek schizo, "to split, divide," and lobos, "lobe," thus meaning split-lobed (ref. Euphorbia schizoloba)
  • schizotri'cha: from the Greek schizo, "to divide," and trichos, "hair," referring to the branched hairs (ref. Castilleja schizotricha)
  • Schkuhr'ia: after German botanist Christian Schkuhr (1741-1811). The following was translated from a German website: "Christian Schkuhr (1741-1811) was a trained gardener and later worked as a mechanic for the University of Wittenberg. Besides his occupation, he conducted botanical studies throughout his life. Not only did he learn to draw, to engrave and to use a microscope (using selfmade instruments) to publish his “Handbook of Botany”, he also learned how to print (cf. Boehmer’s epilogue for the first volume of the handbook with a rather detailed description of the author’s life). With his rather modestly equipped work, Schkuhr not only wanted to help plant lovers to get to know the names of native plants and plants introduced to the area by using Carl von Linné’s system, which by then had been accepted almost everywhere in Germany, but also wanted them to get familiar with the value of plants with regard to medicinal use, local economy and agriculture. At the same time, he regarded his handbook as a substitute for a so far non-existent guide to the flora of Wittenberg (cf. volume 1, p.3). The plant species were classified according to Linné’s system and very frequently Schkuhr placed several species next to each other, as was the case with the sweet vernal grass. He stated both the Latin and the German name of the species and gave a brief characterization of the plant and a detailed description and explanation of the figures on the table. Furthermore, Schkuhr gave anthesis, required location, and how widespread the species was, in particular its extent of occurance in and around Wittenberg, as well as the usefulness of the species and further particulars, such as color and smell, peculiar characteristics or anecdotes associated with the plant." (ref. genus Schkuhria)
  • schoen'landii: after Selmar Schonland (sometimes spelled Schoenland) (1860-1940), distinguished botanist in South Africa, where the Rhodes University herbarium and botany department are named in his honor (Thanks to the Dave's Garden Botanary site for this information). He "was a German immigrant, who came to the Eastern Cape in 1889 to take up an appointment as curator of the Albany Museum. He came to Grahamstown via a doctorate at the University of Hamburg and a post at Oxford University (1886–1889 as curator of the Fielding Herbarium and a lecturer in Botany. Working under Prof. Bailey Balfour and Prof. Sydney Vines, he developed an interest in the family Crassulaceae and contributed an account of this group to Engler & Prantl's Natürl. Pflanzenfamilien. Coming to the museum in Grahamstown gave him the opportunity to broaden his interests and develop the second largest herbarium in South Africa which had been founded by W. G. Atherstone in 1860. His father-in-law, Peter MacOwan, had been its honorary curator from 1862 to 1869 before moving to Somerset East. When MacOwan retired from his subsequent post as director of the Cape Town Botanical Garden and curator of the Cape Government Herbarium, he returned to Grahamstown and assisted Schonland in the development of the local herbarium. Schonland approached one of the Rhodes Trustees, Dr. Leander Starr Jameson to assist in funding. Jameson, soon to be elected Member of Parliament for Albany and Prime Minister of the Cape Colony, promised £50,000 without consulting his fellow Trustees. At first they refused to confirm the grant; then, persuaded by Schonland, they made over De Beers Preference Shares to the value of £50,000 to Rhodes University College, founded by Act of Parliament on May 31, 1904. By the time Schonland retired, the Botany Department and Rhodes University had become an established centre of taxonomic research and learning in South Africa. He played a leading role in the Botanical Survey of South Africa which had been initiated by Pole Evans. He was a foundation member of the South African Association for the Advancement of Science, honorary member of the Geological Society of South Africa, foundation member and Fellow of the Royal Soc. of S. Afr. His name was originally spelt Schönland, but he later dropped the umlaut. He is commemorated in Schoenlandia L.Bol., Euphorbia schoenlandii Pax, Brachystelma schonlandianum Schltr. and Sebaea schoenlandii Schinz. Selmar Schonland married Peter MacOwan's daughter Flora in 1896 and was the father of Basil Schonland who contributed greatly to lightning research and radar development." (from Wikipedia) (ref. Aloe schoenlandii)
  • schoeno'ides: like genus Schoenus (ref. Crypsis schoenoides)
  • Schoenoplec'tus: after the Greek schoinos, "rush, reed or cord," and plektos, "twisted, plaited" (ref. genus Schoenoplectus)
  • Schoe'nus: a Latin name for a rush, derived from the Greek schoinos, "rush, reed, cord" (ref. genus Schoenus)
  • school'craftii: after Gary Dean Schoolcraft (1942- ), currently a botanist for the Bureau of Land Management in Susanville, California. He received a bachelor's degree in forest and range management in 1973 from Colorado State University and was a range conservationist for the BLM from 1973-1979 (ref. Eriogonum microthecum var. schoolcraftii)
  • schot'tii: after Arthur Carl Victor Schott (1814-1875), one of the naturalists of the Mexican Boundary Survey.  "Arthur Schott, naturalist, artist, engineer, poet, geologist, and musician, was the son of Christian Friedrich Albert Schott.  He was born in Stuttgart, Württemberg, on February 27, 1814. He attended a gymnasium and then a technical school at Stuttgart, served a year's apprenticeship at the Royal Gardens in Stuttgart, and attended the Institute of Agriculture at Hohenheim.  He was hired by the United States Boundary Commission in 1851 as a "special scientific collector."  Beginning in late 1851, he worked with the commission under William H. Emory in surveying the boundary between Texas and its neighboring Mexican states; collecting botanical, geological, and zoological specimens; submitting notes on geology, plants, and animals; and drawing landscapes and Indians. Lithographs and engravings based on Schott's Texas drawings were published in Emory's official report of the boundary survey, most notably those of Seminole, Lipan Apache, and Kiowa Indians; of the Military Plaza in San Antonio; of the Mexican military colony at Piedras Negras; and of falls on the Rio Grande forty miles below Eagle Pass.  Schott also made significant contributions to the study of Texas geology.  He examined sedimentary deposits and fossil evidence in the Rio Grande basin in order to establish the dates of inundation of the area by the sea, and made important contributions to the study of mountain formation.  After completion in the mid-1850s of the boundary survey, Schott worked on a survey for a possible transoceanic ship canal across the Isthmus of Darien; collected zoological and botanical specimens in Yucatán; surveyed native vegetation in Washington, D.C. and worked in the coast survey office.  He died in Washington, D.C., on July 26, 1875, leaving a widow, Augusta, and six children." [from the Handboook of Texas Online by the Texas State Historical Association] (ref. Psorothamnus [formerly Dalea] schottii, Loeseliastrum schottii, Peucephyllum schottii)
  • schreb'eri: after German naturalist and physician Johann Christian Daniel Von Schreber (1739-1810). He studied medicine, theology and natural history at Halle in Germany and Uppsala in Sweden under Carl von Linné and received his MD degree in 1760. He became a practicing physician and then after studying botany in Berlin a professor of medicine and botany at Erlangen in Bavaria in 1770. He was made director of the Erlangen botanical garden in 1773 and became professor of natural history in 1776. He was the editor of the 8th edition of Linné's Genera Plantarum (1789–1791), was chosen as a member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences in 1787, and knighted in 1791 (ref. Brasenia schreberi, Muhlenbergia schreberi)
  • schultes'ii: after Josef August Schultes (1773-1831), Austrian botanist and professor in Vienna who co-authored some volumes of Systema Vegetabilium (ref. Galium schultesii)
  • scillo'ides: resembling genus Scilla, a genus in the Lily family (ref. Lilaea scilloides)
  • scirpoid'ea: like genus Scirpus (ref. Carex scirpoidea)
  • Scir'pus: a Latin name used by Pliny for a rush or bulrush (ref. genus Scirpus)
  • Scleran'thus: from the Greek scleros, "hard," and anthos, "flower," from the extremely hard hypanthium or calyx tube (ref. genus Scleranthus)
  • Sclerocac'tus: from the Greek skleros, "hard, harsh, cruel," and Cactus, referring to the hard, sharp spines (ref. genus Sclerocactus)
  • Sclerochlo'a: from the Greek skleros, "hard, dry," and chloa, "grass," alluding to the thick glumes on this grass (ref. genus Sclerochloa)
  • Scleroli'non: from the Greek and Latin for "hard flax" for the rough surface of the nutlets (ref. genus Sclerolinon)
  • Scleropo'gon: from the Greek for "hard beard" for the firm awns (ref. genus Scleropogon)
  • Scolio'pus: from the Greek skolios, "curved or bent," and pous, "foot," alluding to the curving flower stalks (ref. genus Scoliopus)
  • scoly'mus: from the Greek skolymus, an artichoke. This is also the name used by Pliny for the Spanish oyster-plant, Scolymus hispanicus (ref. Cynara scolymus, also genus Scolymus)
  • sco'pa: broom-like
  • scopar'ia/scopar'ium/scopar'ius: broom-like, alluding to the plant structure (ref. Carex scoparia, Kochia scoparia, Menodora scoparia, Helianthemum scoparium, Schizachyrium scoparium, Cytisus scoparius, Lotus scoparius)
  • scopulorum: growing on cliffs (ref. Carex scopulorum, Gilia scopulorum)
  • scopuli'na/scopuli'num: growing in rocky places (ref. Sorbus scopulina, Woodsia scopulina, Polystichum scopulinum)
  • Scopulo'phila: from the Latin scopulus, "a rock or cliff," and philos, "fond of, loving," from its habitat (ref. genus Scopulophila)
  • scopulor'um: of cliffs, crags, projecting rocks (ref. Gilia scopulorum)
  • scorpio'ides: resembling a scorpion (ref. Myosotis scorpioides)
  • Scorzoner'a: from various roots such as scorzon in Old French and scorsone in Italian and escorzonera in Spanish, meaning "a viper or adder," possibly from the use of its root as an antidote to snakebite (ref. genus Scorzonera)
  • scorzonerifo'lia: with leaves like those of genus Scorzonera (ref. Gypsophila scorzonerifolia)
  • scot'ticum: of or from Scott Mountain in the Klamath Range (ref. Galium serpenticum ssp. scotticum)
  • scoul'eri: see scouleriana below (ref. Campanula scouleri, Hieracium scouleri, Hypericum scouleri, Phyllospadix scouleri, Polypodium scouleri, Silene scouleri, Valeriana sitchensis var. scouleri)
  • scouleria'na: after Dr. John Scouler (1804-1871), a surgeon-naturalist who travelled, explored and collected with his fellow Scot David Douglas in the Columbia River region of the American Northwest, making his specimens available to W.J. Hooker, his former professor at Glasgow, and in the process introducing Pacific Northwest plants to English gardens. After completing a medical course at the University of Glasgow, he went to Paris and studied at the Jardin des Plantes. In 1824, thanks to the influence of Hooker, he sailed on the William and Ann, a Hudson's Bay Company vessel, bound for the Columbia River by way of Madeira, Rio de Janeiro and the Galapagos Islands. To prepare himself for this undertaking, he studied the botanical journals and notes of Archibald Menzies, and he made a large collection of specimens from the American Northwest. After his return to England in 1826, he sailed for Calcutta by way of Cape Horn and Madras, and then after returning to Glasgow, he practised medicine and was subsequently appointed a professor of geology, natural history and mineralogy at the Andersonian Institute, now the University of Strathclyde, and in 1834 a professor of mineralogy, geology, zoology, and botany, at the Royal Dublin Society, which position he held until his retirement in 1854. He was a co-founder of the Glasgow Medical Journal and an editor of Henry Cheek's Edinburgh Journal of Natural and Geographical Science, and published many articles on a variety of natural science topics. In 1905 the Oregon Historical Society published "Dr. John Scouler's Journal of a Voyage to N.W. America". Also with David Douglas he made the first 40 collections of botanical specimens on the Galapagos Islands in 1825. In 1829 Hooker published the genus Scouleria in the moss family Grimmiaceae in his honor (ref. Salix scouleriana)
  • scrib'neri/Scrib'neria: after Frank Lamson-Scribner (1851-1938). A website of the National Center for Biotechnology Information supplies the following information: "Frank Lamson-Scribner, in 1885, became the first scientist commissioned by the United States Department of Agriculture with the responsibility to study diseases of economic plants. His innovative approach established the foundation for applied plant pathology at the USDA. In an early international cooperative effort in plant pathology, he detailed the life history of the grape black rot pathogen. His early studies with the Bordeaux mixture introduced the American farmer to the modern era of chemical control. Scribner became the botanist and director of the University of Tennessee Agricultural Experiment Station. He published the first book written on the subject of plant diseases in the United States, and described a new nematode disease of potato. He asserted that the practical value of plant pathology to farmers would only follow meticulous studies of the life history of pathogens." He was also the author in 1897 of American Grasses (Illustrated) and was considered an expert on grasses. Some references hyphenate his name and some do not (ref. Elymus scribneri and genus Scribneria)
  • scribneria'num: see previous entry (ref. Panicum oligosanthes var. scribnerianum)
  • scrip'tus: from the Latin scriptus, "written," past participle of scribo, "to write," of unknown application (ref. Plagiobothrys scriptus)
  • Scrophular'ia: named in 1474 by an Italian physician who noticed the resemblance between the rhizomal knobs of some species and the tubercular condition of human lymph nodes called scrophula (ref. genus Scrophularia)
  • scrophulario'ides: resembling Scrophularia (ref. Penstemon grinnellii var. scrophularioides)
  • Scutellar'ia: from the Latin scutella, "a small dish, tray or platter," and referring to the sepals which appear this way during the fruiting period (ref. genus Scutellaria)
  • scutella'ta: shaped like a small dish or saucer (ref. Medicago scutellata)
  • searls'iae: after Fanny Searls (1851-1939), wife of Henry Gradle. Nevada botanist Arnold Tiehm researched Fanny Searls and had a 3-page biography of her in Brittonia in 1985. She graduated Laureate of Science in 1870 from Northwest Female College and studied for a year at Northwestern Univ., the first year women were admitted. In 1871 she travelled with her father, a lawyer, to the Pahranagat mines in Nevada. While there she collected 215 plant specimens, as well as minerals and fossils, which she gave to Prof. Oliver Marcy at Northwestern U. In 1877 she received her M.D. from U. of Michigan but couldn't get an internship. So she worked as a student nurse in New york until 1881 when she married a Chicago ophthalmologist. After her husband's death in 1911, she moved to Santa Barbara. Tiehm writes: "At age 75 she would walk four to five miles on the beach every day and still played the piano with such strength and precision that it sounded as though two or three people were playing in harmony." (Thanks to David Hollombe for this information) (ref. Dalea searlsiae)
  • sebif'erum: bearing tallow (ref. Triadica sebiferum)
  • Seca'le: ancient Latin name for rye (ref. genus Secale)
  • secali'nus: resembling rye (ref. Bromus secalinus)
  • secun'da/secun'dus: side-flowering (ref. Orthilia secunda, Poa secunda ssp. secunda, Pyrola secunda, Streptantha glandulosus ssp. secundus)
  • secunda'tum: from secunda, "side-flowering," and the suffix -atum which indicates likeness (ref. Stenotaphrum secundatum)
  • secundiflor'us: with flowers arranged on one side of a stalk only (ref. Nemacladus secundiflorus)
  • sedo'ides: "like genus Sedum" (ref. Isocoma menziesii var. sedoides)
  • Se'dum: from the Latin sedo, "to sit," in reference to the manner in which some species attach themselves to stones or walls (ref. genus Sedum)
  • sege'tum: of cornfields (ref. Glebionis [formerly Chrysanthemum] segetum, Gladiolus segetum)
  • Selaginel'la: diminutive of Selago, the name of another moss-like plant (ref. genus Selaginella)
  • selby'i: after Ohio botanist and plant collector Augustine Dawson Selby (1859-1924), who worked at the Ohio Agricultural Experiment Station (ref. Boechera selbyi)
  • Selinocar'pus: from the Greek selinon, "celery, parsley" (or selene, "moon," or selinas, "a kind of cabbage") and karpos, "fruit" (ref. genus Selinocarpus)
  • selloa'na/sellowia'na: named after Friedrich Sellow (1789-1831, original family name Sello), a German traveller and naturalist who made extensive botanical collections in Brazil and Uruguay, and whose name appears on many South American plants (ref. Cortaderia selloana, Feijoa sellowiana)
  • sel'lulus: from the Latin sellula, "a small seat or stool" (ref. Lupinus lepidus var. sellulus)
  • semi-: half
  • semibacca'ta: 'baccata' means "berry-like, having fruits with a pulpy texture" and "semi" means "half," hence somewhat berry-like (ref. Atriplex semibaccata)
  • semibarba'ta: somewhat bearded or furnished with long, weak hairs (ref. Pedicularis semibarbata)
  • semidecan'drum: semi in compound words means "half," and decandrum means "with ten anthers," so this would mean with five anthers. Flora of North America calls this five-stamen mouse-ear chickweed (ref. Cerastium semidecandrum)
  • semo'ta/semo'tus: from the Latin semotus, "removed, separated, distant," in turn from semoveo, "to place apart" (ref. Astragalus lentiginosus var. semotus, Thermopsis californica var. semota)
  • semiintegrifo'lia: 'integrifolia' means 'with entire or uncut leaves,' so this probably means that half the leaf is entire-margined and half is toothed (ref. Amelanchier alnifolia var. semiintegrifolia)
  • semper-: always, ever
  • semperflor'ens: ever-flowering
  • sempervi'rens: evergreen (ref. Chrysolepis sempervirens)
  • Sene'cio: from senex, "old man," referring to the gray hairs on the seeds (ref. genus Senecio)
  • Senega'lia: apparently referring to some derivation from Senegal in Africa. Senegalia is a large widespread genus which consists of approximately 86 taxa in the Americas, 69 in Africa, 43 in Asia and 2 in Australia and which has been separated from Acacia. The genus name Senagalia was published by C.S. Rafinesque in 1838. The species name Senagalia triacantha was published by Rafinesque in the same year although it was later determined to be an illegitimate name, and subsequent to that date the first use of the name was for a whole group of species in Mexico published by N.L. Britton and J.N. Rose in North American Flora in 1928. One of those species was Senegalia greggii, the name of which later became a synonym for Acacia greggii, but which has now been resurrected. It is unclear what Rafinesque was referring to when he created the name Senegalia since as usual he did not explain it in his publication, but there is a natural gum called gum senegal or gum arabic made from the hardened sap of two species of the acacia tree, Acacia [Senegalia] senegal and Acacia seyal, trees which grow from Senegal to the Sudan and Somalia, and there would seem to be some connection between the generic name and this substance. In any case an African name came to be used for an American species (ref. Senegalia greggii)
  • Sen'na: from the Arabic name Sana (ref. genus Senna)
  • sen'ta: thorny, rough, from the Latin sentis, "a thorn or bramble," from the scabrous, rough stems (ref. Carex senta)
  • se'pium: growing in hedges or used for hedges (ref. Calystegia sepium)
  • septentriona'le/septentriona'lis: northern, belonging to the north (ref. Epilobium septentrionale, Androsace septentrionalis, Keckiella ternata var. septentrionalis, Layia septentrionalis, Androsace septentrionalis)
  • sepul'tipes: from the Latin sepultus, "buried," and the suffix -pes which refers to the stalk, hence "buried stalk" (ref. Astragalus sepultipes)
  • Sequoi'a: after Sequoiah (1770-1843), the son of a British merchant and a Cherokee woman (ref. genus Sequoia)
  • Sequoiaden'dron: this name is derived from the genus name Sequoia and the Greek dendron for "tree," hence Sequoia tree (ref. genus Sequoiadendron)
  • sere'noi: after Sereno Watson (see watsonii) (ref. Astragalus serenoi var. shockleyi)
  • sergilo'ides: the only reference I can find that might relate to the meaning of this name is Jaeger's A Sourcebook of Biological Names and Terms, in which he lists the prefix serg as deriving from the French serge for 'silken stuff.' But David Hollombe sent the following: "Sergilus was a genus named by Gaertner. The only species in the genus was Sergilus scoparius which is a synonym of Baccharis scoparia, a broom-like species from Jamaica." (ref. Baccharis sergiloides)
  • serica'ta/serica'tus: from the Latin sericatus, "dressed in silk" (ref. Lupinus sericatus)
  • seri'cea/seri'ceum: silky (ref. Balsamorhiza sericea, Cornus sericea, Pluchea sericea, Ribes sericeum)
  • sericif'era: silk-bearing (ref. Araujia sericifera)
  • Sericocar'pus: from the Greek serikos, "silky," and karpos, "fruit" (ref. genus Sericocarpus)
  • sericoleu'ca: from serikos, "silky," and leukos, "white" (ref. Ivesia sericoleuca)
  • seroti'num: late in flowering or ripening (ref. Phoradendron serotinum ssp. macrophyllum)
  • ser'pens: snake-like (ref. Chamaesyce serpens)
  • serpentico'la: same as serpentinicola (ref. Carex serpenticola)
  • serpen'ticum: of or belonging to serpents (ref. Galium serpenticum)
  • serpentinico'la: living on serpentine soils (ref. Githopsis pulchella ssp. serpentinicola, Hastingsia sepentinicola)
  • serpenti'num/serpenti'nus: serpentine, relating to snakes or to serpentine rocks, from serpens, "a serpent" (ref. Allium serpentinum, Hesperolinon serpentinum)
  • serpyllifo'lia: with leaves like those of thyme, Serpyllum (ref. Arenaria serpyllifolia, Euphorbia serpyllifolia, Veronica serpyllifolia ssp. humifusa)
  • serpyllo'ides: Like genus Serpyllum (ref. Pogogyne serpylloides)
  • serra: probably means serrate from the Latin serra for "saw" (ref. Allium serra, Senecio serra)
  • serra'ta: saw-toothed (ref. Balsamorhiza serrata, Ditaxis serrata)
  • serratifo'lia: with saw-toothed leaves
  • serratipe'tala: with toothed petals
  • serra'todens: with serrate teeth (ref. Carex serratodens)
  • serrio'la: either in ranks, or pertaining to salad, being one form of an old name for chicory (ref. Lactuca serriola)
  • serrula'ta/serrula'tus: minutely serrate (ref. Cleome serrulata, Linanthus serrulatus)
  • Sesban'ia: from Sesban, an ancient Arabic name for one of the species of this genus (ref. genus Sesbania)
  • sesquimetra'lis: the prefix sesqui- means one-and-a-half, so this means one-and-a-half meters long, and refers to the stems (ref. Astragalus lentiginosus var. sesquimetralis)
  • sessiliflo'ra: with unstalked or sessile flowers (ref. Heterotheca sessiliflora ssp. echioides, Heterotheca sessiliflora ssp. fastigiata)
  • sessilifo'lia/sessilifo'lium: sessile-leaved (ref. Salix sessilifolia, Eriodictyon sessilifolium)
  • ses'silis:  having sessile leaves (ref. Ipomoea sessilis, Soliva sessilis)
  • Sesu'vium: neither Jepson or Munz offer a meaning for this name, but thanks to Umberto Quattrocchi and Jaeger's Source-book of Biological Names and Terms, we have the following: Sesuvium, land of the Sesuvii, a Gallic tribe from west of the Seine. I have no idea how this name came to be applied to this genus however (ref. genus Sesuvium)
  • seta'ceum/seta'ceus: bristled (ref. Pennisetum setaceum, Scirpus setaceus)
  • Seta'ria: from the Latin saeta, "a bristle or hair" in reference to the bristly spikelets (ref. genus Setaria)
  • set'chellii: after American botanist William Albert Setchell (1864-1943). The following is from a University of California website: "Setchell was born in Norwich, Connecticut on April 15, 1864 into a family that had deep roots in New England. Setchell's father, a businessman associated with a printing company that made wooden type, was a prisoner of the Confederate army at the time of his son's birth. Setchell, in an autobiographical fragment written in 1934, chronicled an early interest in natural history, especially botany, which was encouraged by family and friends and fostered in his prep school years at the Norwich Free Academy. He collected plants and sent interesting specimens to Daniel Cady Eaton, the pteridologist of Yale, and to Edward Tuckerman, the lichenologist at Amherst College, who replied with identifications and notes in Latin. Setchell entered Yale University in 1883. The curriculum was heavily weighted towards classics, with the result that Setchell's botanical studies, with the exception of one formal course taught by Eaton from Gray's Textbook of Botany, were extracurricular. He became acquainted with Isaac Holden, an enthusiastic amateur botanist and joined him on numerous collecting forays. Holden, a former teacher who was well versed in botany and spoke several languages fluently, was vice-president and manager of the Wheeler and Wilson Sewing Machine Company of Bridgeport, Connecticut. Setchell noted in his abortive autobiography that his life at Yale was that of an ordinary undergraduate of the time---he was elected to a fraternity, he studied Greek, Latin, and mathematics and he attended morning chapel daily. (An admonitory note from the college dean that has been preserved among the Setchelliana in the Bancroft Library at the University of California attests to occasional lapses in attendance.) As his undergraduate years drew to a close, Setchell changed his goals, deciding to pursue the study of natural history in graduate school rather than teaching classics in a preparatory school. He graduated ninth in a class of 175 in June 1887, and in the fall of that year began graduate school at Harvard. At Harvard, Setchell studied with W.G. Farlow, the pre-eminent American cryptogamic botanist of the time. He took as his research topic the study of kelps (Laminariales), concentrating on Saccorhiza dermatodea. The published version of his thesis (Setchell, 1891), entitled "Concerning the life-history of Saccorhiza dermatodea, (De la Pyl.) J. Ag.", is an account of the anatomy and morphology of growth stages of the sporophyte (kelp gametophytes not being discovered for another 25 years). As a collateral project, Setchell studied the fungal genus Doassansia, but he had to conceal this work from Farlow until his thesis was completed, at which time Farlow pronounced the work important enough to publish. In 1889, Setchell met F.S. Collins of Malden, Massachusetts, an amateur phycologist and indefatigable collector, who was an accountant in the Boston Rubber Shoe Company. Collins had been involved in the preparation of various exsiccatae, and he, Setchell, and Holden conceived the idea of issuing a series of fascicles of dried specimens with printed labels of North American freshwater and marine algae. The initial intention was for each of the trio to prepare 50 uniform specimens of each collection, so that 50 copies of each fascicle could be produced. Eventually, 80 copies of each fascicle were produced. The first fascicle of this exsiccata, which came to be known as the Phycotheca boreali-americana (Collins, Holden, & Setchell, 1895--1919) , was sent to subscribers in 1895. Fascicles of the PBA, each consisting of 50 numbers, continued to be issued until Collins's death, with the last, no. 46, in 1919. After receiving his doctorate, Setchell returned to the Sheffield Scientific School of Yale as an Assistant in Biology. He taught at Yale until 1895, becoming Instructor, and finally, with the death of Eaton, Assistant Professor of Botany. In the summer he supervised work in Marine Botany at the Woods Hole Marine Biological Laboratory. During this time he continued research on kelps, becoming interested in the influence of temperature on their distribution, following a suggestion by Professor William H. Brewer (Setchell, 1893). He developed interests in Cyanophyceae and physiology. In 1895, the Regents of the University of California, needing to replace the departing Professor of Botany, Edward L. Greene, offered the 31-year old Setchell an associate professorship, acting headship, and a salary of $2800 per year. Setchell, who was happy at Yale, refused. The offer was raised to full professorship, headship, and $3000 per year. Unable to induce Yale to match this offer, Setchell accepted, and with moving expenses of $250 left for Berkeley, where he remained as head of the Department of Botany until his retirement in 1934. During his academic career, Setchell's interests included floristics (Pacific coast of North America, South Pacific, Hong Kong), taxonomy of algae (Microdictyon, Laminariaceae, Sargassum, Gigartinaceae, Corallinaceae, Cyanophyceae, Scinaia), taxonomy of fungi (especially smuts and hypogeous gasteromycetes), and taxonomy of a few groups of angiosperms (Balanophoraceae, Salix), parasitism (angiosperms, red algae), genetics (Nicotiana), biogeography (kelps, Zostera, island floras), ethnobotany (algae, tobacco), coral reefs, and thermal algae. His pioneering ideas on the influence of temperature on algal distribution are still cited today. He was the first to emphasize the role of macroalgae in the formation of coral reefs. Setchell's work on thermal algae was not as well documented as his work on other subjects, so we will take this opportunity to review it. Setchell travelled widely, and wherever he went he collected plants, and if possible, visited herbaria and established contacts with other botanists. He made three trips to Alaska, the first to the Bering Sea in 1899, and two round-the-world trips, in 1903 and 1926 during sabbaticals. He spent several summers on the East Coast and in Europe looking at type specimens in herbaria and parts of other summers at a camp in Foresta near Yosemite National Park. He visited Yellowstone National Park three times. Setchell was a very popular teacher. His Introductory Botany attracted so many students that it is suspected that his grading policy may have influenced the attendance. According to Lincoln Constance (pers. comm.), Setchell prided himself on being able to teach any of the courses in the department. He was especially proud of his course on botanical history (Botany 150, still available on microfilm at the Bioscience Library at Berkeley). Setchell directed several master's students and three PhD students specializing in phycology during his career, but none of his students continued in phycology. In his later years he acted as unofficial advisor to many young phycologists (among them E.Y. Dawson and F. Drouet) and other botanists at Berkeley and elsewhere. He referred to these students as his nephews and nieces, and they addressed him (in letters, at least) as Uncle Bill. Under his leadership, which was apparently autocratic, the Department of Botany achieved world renown. The series University of California Publications in Botany was initiated, the Herbarium and the Botanical Garden were built up. The founding of the Botanical Garden owes a great deal to Setchell's addiction to cigars and pipes. He became interested in all aspects of the smoking habit, and wanted to discover the geographic origin of Nicotiana. Cultivars and aboriginal tobaccos from around the world were grown in the Garden. These same tobacco stocks later were the basis of mutation research in the Department of Genetics. Setchell's extracurricular life was as rich as his life on campus. He delighted in theater and opera, an interest beginning in his Boston days and documented in his scrapbooks by numerous tickets and programs. He was a member of many academic and social societies at the University and was also a member of the Athenian Club in Oakland and the Bohemian Club in San Francisco. He took part in an annual retreat at the Bohemian Grove in Sonoma County, which included an elaborate theatrical piece. He wrote a play for this retreat, but it was never performed. One of his closest friends and fellow club member was the playwright and short story writer C.C. Dobie, who accompanied him on many recreational collecting trips. In 1920, at the age of 56, Setchell married Clara B. Caldwell of Providence, Rhode Island. From then on, she assisted him at the University and accompanied him on all his trips. She died in 1934 following an unsuccessful operation for breast cancer. Setchell retired in 1934, but continued to work on botanical projects until his death in 1943. During these years he was a semi-invalid, suffering from heart problems and complications from prostate surgery. He continued to travel and collect, and in fact was accompanied by a nurse on some of his last collecting trips." (ref. Dudleya setchellii)
  • seti-: in compound words signifies "bristled"
  • set'iger/setig'erus: from seti, "bristle," and -gero, "bearing," thus "bearing bristles," referring to the hairy stems, sepals, ovaries and styles (ref. Cordylanthus rigidus ssp. setiger, Croton setiger)
  • setilo'ba: bristle-lobed (ref. Euphorbia setiloba, Navarettia setiloba)
  • seto'sa/seto'sum: bristly hairy (ref. Pectocarya setosa, Piptochaetium setosum)
  • setosis'sima: very bristly hairy (ref. Langloisia setosissima ssp. punctata, Langloisia setosissima ssp. setosissima)
  • shal'lon: Stearn's Dictionary of Plant Names says: "Rendering of a western American Indian (Chinook) name kikwu-salu for Gaultheria shallon (ref. Gaultheria shallon)
  • shar'smithae/shar'smithiae: after Helen Katherine Myers Sharsmith (1905-1982), author of Flora of the Mount Hamilton Range of California and Spring Wildflowers of the San Francisco Bay Region (ref. Allium sharsmithae, Campanula sharsmithiae)
  • shar'smithii: after Carl W. Sharsmith (1903-1994), botanist and professor at San Jose State University where he created a 15,000 sheet herbarium mostly of native plants that he collected, identified and mounted. The herbarium now bears his name. He was also a much beloved National Park Service interpretive ranger at Yosemite, beginning there at the Yosemite School of Field Natural History in 1930, and remaining a ranger until the age of 90. "[He] was born in New York, New York in 1903. He studied botany at the University of California in the 1930s and received the Ph.D. in 1940. He held a position combining duties as herbarium curator and botany instructor at Washington State University from 1937 to 1939. From 1940 to 1946 he was with the University of Minnesota, and from 1950 onward at San Jose State College. His principal interest was in alpine vegetation. Sharsmith's years at Washington State proved to be a frustrating time. He found himself required to teach many classes, while also attempting to complete a doctoral dissertation and administer a herbarium with a large backlog of work. He inadvertently became involved in a quarrel with the university administration when the University President cancelled planned field trips. He also felt a sense of isolation at Pullman, where he was far from the alpine vegetation which held his major interest. Moreover, the lack of cultural opportunities, especially performances of serious music, added to this feeling of isolation. After two years he left this position. Ironically, many of the problems which had vexed him, and which had also prompted his immediate predecessors to leave Washington State, were then alleviated by changes in the policies regarding research, teaching, and administration of the herbarium." (Quoted from a website of the Washington State University Libraries). He was married to Helen K. Sharsmith (see previous entry) (ref. Draba sharsmithii, Hackellia sharsmithii)
  • shasten'se/shasten'sis: of or from the Mt. Shasta region or named for Shasta County, California (ref. Adiantum shastense, Polygonum shastense, Trifolium longipes var. shastense, Ageratina shastensis, Plagiobothrys shastensis)
  • shaw'ii: after Henry Shaw (1800-1889), who was born in England and came to America in 1819, establishing a hardware concern in St. Louis. He decided to found a botanical garden in his adopted city after visiting the Royal Botanic Gardens at Kew, and this was accomplished on land adjacent to his home in 1858, followed by the creation of a museum for his library and herbarium the next year, and later an arboretum, green houses and formal gardens. In 1870 he gave the city of St. Louis 190 acres of land adjoining the gardens for a public park, and in 1885 he established the Henry Shaw School of Botany at Washington University, stipulating that the Director of the Botanical Garden also hold the George Engelmann Professorship of Botany at Washington University, positions which Dr. Peter Raven currently holds (see ravenii). After his retirement from the world of commerce, he pursued a fascination with botany and arboriculture, and a love of travel and the classics that made his park into an American version of a Victorian pleasure ground (ref. Agave shawii)
  • shel'donii: after American botanist and Astragalus authority Edmund Perry Sheldon (1869-1913), resident of Minnesota and later of Oregon where he specialized in forestry. Specimens he collected form a significant part of the collection at the Oregon State Herbarium (ref. Carex sheldonii)
  • shel'tonii: after botanist, minerologist and horticulturist Christopher A. Shelton (?-1853), a pioneer of scientific agricultural research in California. It was Shelton who brought the first colonies of honeybees into California, and he died soon thereafter as a result of a boiler explosion on the steamship Jenny Lind (ref. Monardella sheltonii, Viola sheltonii)
  • Shep'herdia: after John Shepherd (1764-1836), curator of the Liverpool Botanic Gardens and friend of Thomas Nuttall, and author in 1808 of A Catalog of Plants in the Botanic Garden at Liverpool.  Nuttall was also associated with this botanic garden (ref. genus Shepherdia)
  • Sherard'ia: named after Dr. William Sherard (1659-1728), patron of Dillenius and friend of John Ray. Dr. Sherard maintained a collection of botanical books, dried plants, fruits and seeds which he bequeathed to Oxford University, of which he was a fellow.  He was also a traveller and British Consul to Smyrna in Turkish Asia Minor (1703-1716) where he collected plants.  He studied botany from 1686 to 1688 in Paris under Joseph Pitton de Tournefort and was a pupil of Hermann Boerhaave in Leyden from 1688 to 1689, and founded the Sherardian Chair of Botany at Oxford (ref. genus Sherardia)
  • shet'leri: after Stanwyn Gerald Shetler (1933- ), an American botanist and Smithsonian Institution curator. The following is from a website of the Washington Biologists' Field Club: "Stan was born on October 11, 1933, in Johnstown, Pennsylvania. He grew up and attended schools nearby. His father was a minister and also a school teacher, who founded and directed a K-12 parochial school. His interest in natural history began with bird watching in the sixth grade and was stimulated by his science teacher and fostered by his mother. Birding has been a lifelong avocation. Stan came to the Department of Botany, National Museum of Natural History of the Smithsonian Institution in 1962 directly from graduate studies at the University of Michigan, where he subsequently earned a PhD in systematic botany after completing his dissertation. He spent his whole professional career at the Smithsonian before retiring at the end of 1995. Earlier he earned his Bachelor's and Master's degrees (1955, 1958) from Cornell University after first attending Eastern Mennonite College (now University), Harrisonburg, Virginia. Beginning as an assistant curator, he rose to the rank of curator, with his curatorial area of responsibility being temperate and arctic North America, including, notably, the local flora of the Washington, DC, region. From 1984 to 1994, he served as associate director and then deputy director of the National Museum of Natural History. Stan's botanical interests have been wide-ranging, but he is a recognized expert on the bellflowers (genus Campanula) and the flora of the Arctic. His publications number well over 100 scientific, technical, and popular titles, including three books and the recent Annotated Checklist of the Vascular Plants of the Washington-Baltimore Area (2 volumes, 2002). The books are on Russian botanical history (1968), a monograph on the evolution of the New World harebells (Campanula rotundifolia complex) (1982), and the popular Portraits of Nature: Paintings by Robert Bateman (1986), which accompanied a Smithsonian exhibition by the same title organized by him in 1987; it explored the diversity of nature through the Canadian artist's work. He also edited the English translations of the last eight volumes of the 30-volume Flora of the USSR. From the mid-60s to the mid-70s, Stan was executive secretary and then program director of the international Flora North America Program, which pioneered in the use of computers for taxonomic information and set the stage for the subsequent effort to prepare a modern treatise of North American plants. His research travels have taken him across North America and to parts of South and Central America, Europe, Asia (Caucasus, Siberia, Tuva), and Australia. Stan has been a frequent lecturer, teacher, and consultant through the years. He has been active in various conservation and environmental causes. He has served on the board of the Piedmont Environmental Council (1985-88) and several terms (latest, 1994-99) on the board of directors of the Audubon Naturalist Society, including three years (1974-77) as president. He is a charter member (1982) and the current botany chair since 1996 of the Virginia Native Plant Society. He has taught plant identification courses for the USDA Graduate School off and on since 1963. Honors include election as fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (1994), for "contributions to the formation of electronic data banks and the computer registry of botanical specimens," and fellow of the Washington Academy of Sciences (2002). Upon retirement he was appointed botanist emeritus by the NMNH. In 1995, he received the Audubon Naturalist Society's top award for contributions to natural history and conservation, the Paul Bartsch Medal. In 1988, he was invited by the Chautauqua Institution to present the featured lecture at the celebration of the late Roger Tory Peterson's 80th birthday. He received the Piedmont Environmental Council’s Individual Award for Contributions to Environmental Improvement in 1981 for his role in drafting a Vegetation Preservation Policy for Loudoun County, Virginia. Stan was elected to membership in the Washington Biologists’ Field Club in 1970 and served as vice president from 1981 to 1984 and as president from 1984 to 1987. He lives in Sterling, Virginia, with his wife, Elaine. They have a grown son, Stephen, and daughter, Lara, and one granddaughter. (ref. Campanula shetleri)
  • she'vockii: after James R. Shevock (1950- ), a California botanist currently working for the National Park Service. "Jim began his career in 1979 as the Botanist/Ecologist for the USDA Forest Service, Sequoia National Forest. In 1984 he accepted at 2-year assignment to assist the California Department of Fish & Game as Botanist of its Natural Diversity Database. He was promoted in 1986 to Regional Botanist for the USDA Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Region, stationed in San Francisco, where he administered the sensitive and rare plant program across 18 national forests in California. In 1998 Jim was selected to serve as the Associate Regional Director for Resources Stewardship & Science for the USDI National Park Service, Pacific West Region, headquartered in Oakland, California. In 2004 he became the National Park Service Research Coordinator for the Californian Cooperative Ecosystem Studies Unit (CA-CESU) based at University of California, Berkeley. Jim has also been a research associate of the Department of Botany, California Academy of Sciences, since 1983, and a research associate at the University Herbarium, University of California, Berkeley, since 1996. He has served as President, Corresponding Secretary, and Council Member for the California Botanical Society, and as Vice President for Plant Programs with the California Native Plant Society. Jim has traveled to the Peoples Republic of China, Taiwan (ROC), Thailand, Australia, Korea, and Japan to pursue professional and research interests." (from a website on Mosses of Nevada hosted by the Nevada Natural Heritage Program) (ref. Allium shevockii, Astragalus shevockii, Heterotheca shevockii, Lomatium shevockii, Mimulus shevockii)
  • shidig'era: from the Latin meaning "bearing a splinter of wood," and presumably referring to the coarse marginal fibers of the leaf blade (ref. Yucca schidigera)
  • shock'leyi:  after William Hillman Shockley (1855-1925), a mining engineer and plant collector in western Nevada and eastern California, who was the first to collect plants in the White Mountains (ref. Acamptopappus shockleyi, Aquilegia shockleyi, Astragalus serenoi var. shockleyi, Boechera shockleyi, Eriogonum shockleyi, Hecastocleis shockleyi, Lupinus shockleyi)
  • shreve'i: after plant physiologist and ecologist Forrest Shreve (1878-1950). According to a website called Some Biogeographers, Evolutionists and Ecologists: Chrono-Biographical Sketches, "Forrest Shreve began his career with floristic studies of his native Maryland and Jamaica, and then moved to Arizona where he spent the rest of his life investigating the ecological and biogeographical conditions under which desert vegetation flourishes. The fourth edition of American Men of Science (1927) succinctly lists Shreve's research as having involved "development of Sarracenia; plant life of Maryland; ecology and physiology of the mountain rain-forests of Jamaica and of desert vegetation; water relations of plants; rainfall and temperature in mountains; vegetation and climate in the United States; soil temperature; ecology of the coastal mountains of California; soil conditions in relation to the distribution of desert vegetation." He received his undergraduate and graduate degree at Johns Hopkins University, was an associate professor of botany at Goucher College 1906-1908 and editor of Plant World 1911-1919, authored in 1914 A Montane Rain-Forest, helped found the Ecological Society of America in 1915, and co-authored with Ira L. Wiggins Vegetation and Flora of the Sonoran Desert which was published posthumously in 1964. He spent most of his career at the Carnegie Institution's Desert Laboratory in Tuscon, Arizona. He was the subject of a 1988 biography by Janice Emily Bowers entitled A Sense of Place: The Life and Work of Forrest Shreve (ref. Quercus parvula var. shrevei)

Algodones Dunes, Imperial County.

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