L-R: Silene parishii (Parish's catchfly), Calochortus invenustus (Plain mariposa lily), Mimulus cardinalis (Scarlet monkeyflower), Acanthoscyphus parishii (Parish's oxytheca), Hypericum formosum var. scouleri (Scouler's St. John's wort).

     I

       In the following names, the stressed vowel is the one preceding the stress mark. It is not always easy to ascertain where such stress should be placed, especially in the case of epithets derived from personal names. I have tried to follow the principle of maintaining the stress of the original name as outlined in the Jepson Manual, and have abandoned it only when it was just too awkward. In the case of some names, I have listed them twice, reflecting either some disagreement or conflict in the rules of pronunciation, some uncertainty on my part as to the correct pronunciation, or that simply sometimes there is no single correct pronunciation. In other instances, the way I record it is just that which sounds right to my ear.

  • -iae: suffix usually added to personal names, e.g. janishiae, davisiae, eastwoodiae, lottiae
  • -iana/ianum/ianus: suffix added to personal names, e.g. ivesiana, armourianum, davidsonianus
  • iber'ica: named after the Iberian Peninsula where a plant might first have been described from a species collected in Spain (ref. Centaurea iberica, Salsola iberica)
  • Ibicel'la: a diminutive form of ibex, the wild goat or chamois, because of the curved horns of the fruit, this former genus's one southern California representative, lutea, has been included by Jepson in the genus Proboscidea (ref. genus Ibicella)
  • -ibilis: a Latin adjectival suffix indicating an ability or capacity to do something, and used where the root infinitive ends in -ere (e.g. flexibilis, "capacity to bend, bendable" from flectere, "to bend")
  • -ica/-icum/icus: a Greek adjectival suffix indicating a state of belonging to or relating to (e.g. californica, californicum, californicus, of or belonging to or relating to California; arcticus, of or belonging to or relating to the Arctic; japonicus, of or belonging to or relating to Japan) or from New Latin, a commonly used ending employed to emphasize or intensify a certain character, as in cylindrica (very cylindrical?) or phyllomanica (with wild or excessively leafy growth)
  • -icans: a Latin adjectival suffix used to imply a process of becoming or a resemblance so close as to be virtually identical (e.g. nigricans, "blackish," from niger, "black"; albicans, "whitish," from albus, "white")
  • icosan'dra: from the Greek eikosi, "twenty," and andros, "a man, male," referring to having twenty stamens (ref. Phytolacca icosandra)
  • Idaho'a: see following entry (ref. genus Idahoa)
  • idahoen'se/idahoen'sis: of or from the state of Idaho (ref. Sisyrinchium idahoense, Agrostis idahoensis, Festuca idahoensis)
  • ida-ma'ia: after Ida May Burke (1862-1871). From David Hollombe: "Ida May's father, Harrison ('Harry') Burk (or Burke) was a stage driver who in 1866, according to the story, showed the flowers to Alphonso Wood. (Soon after, he retired from stage driving and kept a hotel at French Gulch.) Ida May died at Shasta on Feb. 24, 1871. Calculating from the age given in the death notice in the Shasta Courier, she was born about October 15, 1862." The original author of the taxon, Alphonso Wood, apparently linked the ides of May as the flower's blooming time and the girl's name (ref. Dichelostemma ida-maia)
  • -idea: suffix that indicates resemblance, e.g. discoidea, "discoid," deltoidea, "like a triangle (delta)," arachnoidea, "like a spider," conoidea, "cone-like"
  • idrien'sis: after New Idria, near San Benito Mountain south of San Jose (ref. Astragalus lentiginosus var. idriensis)
  • -idus: a Latin adjectival suffix often added to the root of neuter verbs to indicate a state, quality or condition (e.g. nitidus, "shining," from niteo, "to shine"; algidus, "cold," from algeo, "to be cold"; rigidus, "rigid," from rigeo, "to be stiff or numb"; madidus, "moist," from madeo, "to be wet," etc.)
  • -ifera/-iferum/-iferus: a suffix derived from the Latin fero, "to bear," and used in such names as vinifera, "bearing vines," filifera, "bearing threads," piluliferum, "bearing small balls as ball-shaped fruits," sebiferum, "bearing tallow," glanduliferus, "bearing glands," conchuliferus, "bearing small shells or cup-shaped fruits," and proliferus, "bearing side shoots or buds, offspring"
  • igno'ta: hitherto unknown (ref. Camissonia ignota)
  • Iliam'na: the Jepson Manual says "Greek: derivation uncertain." David Hollombe unearthed an article by Weber and Fryxell in Sida, Contributions to Botany (2002) that suggests that Greene had heard of the Iliamna volcano, glacier and/or lake in Alaska and just liked the sound of the name (ref. genus Iliamna)
  • ilicifo'lia/ilicifo'lius: having leaves like the holly, Ilex (ref. Acanthomintha ilicifolia, Ambrosia ilicifolia, Prunus ilicifolia, Rhamnus ilicifolia, Tetracoccus ilicifolius)
  • -ilis: a Latin adjectival suffix used to indicate a capacity or ability (e.g. fragilis, "easily broken," from frangere, "to break"; flexilis, "flexible, capable of being bent," from flecto or flectere, "to bend")
  • illinoen'sis: of or from Illinois (ref. Potamogeton illinoensis)
  • illo'ta: from the Latin illotus, "dirty, unwashed" (ref. Carex illota)
  • illyr'icum: of Illyria or Illyricum, an area corresponding approximately to what was western Yugoslavia and comprising the regions of Liburnia and Dalmatia (ref. Onopordum illyricum)
  • -ima/-imum/-imus: an ending to adjectival words which implies "very or most" (e.g. setossima, "very bristly"; hirsutissima, "very hairy"; ramosissima, "very branched"; mollissima, "very soft"; glaberrima, "very smooth"; gracillimum, "very slender"; altissimum, "very tall, tallest"; viscosissimum, "very sticky" etc. As can be seen in these examples, the use of this ending often drops the final vowel and doubles the final consonant of the original word)
  • imber'bis: without a beard (ref. Polypogon imberbis)
  • im'bricans: see imbricata (ref. Polystichum imbricans ssp. curtum)
  • imbrica'ta: means "overlapping, closely put together," referring to the calyx lobes which are imbricate laterally in fruit (ref. Phacelia imbricata)
  • immacula'ta: spotless (ref. Clarkia similis ssp. immaculata)
  • immemo'ra: a modern Latin dictionary defines this as "unmindful, forgetful, negligent." One of the authors of this taxon, Jim Reveal, wrote me that "The var. immemora was long known, discussed, and yet forgotten, until named in 1989." (ref. Chorizanthe biloba var. immemora)
  • Impa'tiens: from the Latin impatiens, " desiring immediate action," referring to the sudden dehiscence of the capsules (ref. genus Impatiens)
  • impedit'um: tangled
  • Impera'ta: after the Neopolitan apothecary or pharmacist Ferrante Imperato (1550-1625) who had one of the earliest collections of natural history specimens in Italy (possibly in Europe) and was the author of Historia Naturale (first published in 1599) which was a catalog of his 'Museum' specimens containing animals, shells, birds, sea creatures, fossils, clays, metallic ores, marble and gems. He travelled extensively for the purpose of collecting and corresponded with other contemporary naturalists (ref. genus Imperata)
  • imperfec'ta/imperfectus: I can only assume that this means what you might think, that is, imperfect, but it is of uncertain application (ref. Melica imperfecta, Astragalus nuttallianus var. imperfectus)
  • imperia'lis: showy, majestic or powerful
  • implica'ta: from the Latin implico or implicatus, meaning "involved, entangled" perhaps referring to its leafy structure (ref. Malacothrix saxatilis var. implicata)
  • impol'ita/impol'itus: from the Latin impolitus, "unpolished, rough"
  • impres'sa/impres'sus: sunken or impressed, as with veins (ref. Carex lenticularis var. impressa, Ceanothus impressus)
  • im'ula/im'ulus: from the Latin for "little tip of" (ref. Ericameria parryi var. imula)
  • in-: a prefix that usually but not always conveys the sense of "without, lacking" (e.g. incompta, "without adornment;" inerme, "without prickles;" inodorum, "without a scent")
  • -ina/inum/inus: (1) a Latin adjectival suffix that can convey the sense of likeness, often added to noun stems to form adjectives meaning "belonging to or pertaining to," and also a suffix that can be used as a diminutive; (2) a Greek adjectival suffix indicating material or color, resemblance or possession
  • inaequa'lis: unequal (ref. Orcuttia inaequalis)
  • inaequa'ta: unequal (ref. Cryptantha inaequata)
  • inca'na/inca'num/inca'nus: grayish or hoary (ref. Bernardia incana, Bowlesia incana, Brickellia incana, Descurainia incana, Hirschfeldia incana, Malacothrix incana, Matthiola incana, Poliominthe incana, Chenopodium incanum, Eriogonum incanum, Cistus incanus, Lotus incanus)
  • incarna'ta/incarna'tum: flesh-colored (ref. Allionia incarnata, Oxalis incarnata, Stenomesson incarnatum, Trifolium incarnatum)
  • incer'tus: doubtful, uncertain (ref. Cenchrus incertus, Penstemon incertus)
  • inci'sa/inci'sum:  incised, deeply or irregularly cut (ref. Descurainia incisa, Euphorbia incisa, Lithospermum incisum, Trichoptilium incisum)
  • incisifo'lia: with deeply cut leaves
  • incomp'ta: unadorned (ref. Artemisia ludoviciana ssp. incompta)
  • inconspic'ua/inconspic'uus: inconspicuous (ref. Gilia inconspicua, Mimulus inconspicuus)
  • incrassa'ta: thickened (ref. Draba incrassata)
  • incres'cens: growing, increasing (ref. Deinandra increscens)
  • incul'tum: unadorned, rough from the Latin incultus (ref. Eriogonum gracile var. incultum)
  • incur'va: bent inward (ref. Parapholis incurva)
  • incurvifor'mis: incurved, bent inward (ref. Carex incurviformis)
  • indecor'a/indecor'um: unattractive, without decoration (ref. Cuscuta indecora, Malacothrix indecora, Ribes indecorum)
  • in'dica/in'dicus: of or from or referring in some way to India (ref. Duchesnea indica, Eleusine indica, Plantago indica, Reinwardtia indica, Melilotus indicus, Sporobolus indicus)
  • indic'tum: from the Latin indictus, "announced, fixed" (ref. Eriogonum nudum var. indictum)
  • ine'brians: intoxicating (ref. Ribes cereum var. inebrians)
  • inep'tus: from the Latin ineptus, "not suitable or fit, out of place" (ref. Astragalus lentiginosus var. ineptus)
  • iner'me/iner'mis: unarmed, without prickles (ref. Eriogonum inerme, Ribes inerme, Bromus inermis)
  • -ineus: a Greek and Latin adjectival suffix used to indicate material or color, same as -eus (e.g. coccineus, "scarlet")
  • inexpan'sa: not spreading, possibly from the branches of the panicle being erect (ref. Calamagrostis stricta ssp. inexpansa)
  • inezia'na: after Inez Emma Ray Smith (Mrs. Mahlon Clayton Harrison, Mrs. James Bernard Smith) (1867-1937). David Hollombe produced the following capsule biography: "She was born in Marion County, Oregon. Her father had come to Oregon in 1850 and her mother in 1843. She married her first husband around 1887 and her second about 1904. Her second husband was vice-president of Western Fuel Company and later president of King Coal Company. James & Inez Smith financially supported the publication of Jepson's 'Manual' and Inez collected plants in San Francisco and San Mateo counties in 1914 and 1915. From her second marriage until her death she lived in Hillsborough, CA." There was also a Smith Foundation which supported the publication of Howard McMinn's Manual of the trees, shrubs and vines of Mills College campus and an Inez Ray Smith Chair of Botany at Mills College which was established in 1918 (ref. Fritillaria biflora var. ineziana)
  • infect'ivus: from the Latin infectus, "stained, injected," thus meaning "having to do with dyeing" (ref. Plagiobothrys infectivus)
  • infir'ma: feeble, weak (ref. Poa infirma)
  • infirminer'via: with weak nerves or veins (ref. Carex infirminervia)
  • infla'tum/infla'tus: inflated, in reference to some floral  part such as the stem (ref. Eriogonum inflatum, Caulanthus inflatus)
  • infra-: below
  • infundib'ulum: funnel-shaped
  • infusca'tus: darkened
  • innomina'ta: unnamed (ref. Iris innominata)
  • inodo'ra/inodo'rum: without a scent (ref. Matricaria inodora, Nothoscordum inodorum)
  • inopi'num: unexpected (ref. Delphinium inopinum)
  • in'ops: from the Latin inops, "poor, helpless, weak" (ref. Carex inops)
  • inorna'tus: without adornment, unadorned
  • inqui'nans: stained, flecked (ref. Pelargonium inquinans)
  • insaluta'ta: ungreeted (ref. Castilleja ambigua ssp. insalutata)
  • insig'ne/insig'nis: distinguished, remarkable (ref. Eriogonum insigne, Streptanthus insignis)
  • insoli'tum: from the Latin insolitus, "unaccustomed, uncommon" (ref. Veratrum insolitum)
  • insula're/insula'ris: pertaining to or growing on islands (ref. Primula clevelandii var. insularis, Erysimum insulare, Galium nuttallii ssp. insulare, Lomatium insulare, Arctostaphylos insularis, Astragalus insularis, Phacelia insularis, Plantago insularis)
  • insulico'la: dwelling on islands (ref. Arctostaphylos tomentosa ssp. insulicola)
  • integer'rimus: with a smooth edge, undivided (ref. Ceanothus integerrimus, Senecio integerrimus)
  • integ'ra: entire, undivided, with no teeth (ref. Carex integra)
  • integrifo'lia/integrifo'lium/integrifo'lius: indicates that the leaf margins are entire, uncut, not toothed (ref. Nemophila menziesii var. integrifolia, Rhus integrifolia, Allophyllum integrifolium, Thelypodium integrifolium ssp. affine, Aster integrifolius)
  • integ'rior: more entire (ref. Camissonia claviformis ssp. integrior)
  • inter-: the Latin inter, a preposition meaning "between, among"
  • interce'dens: going between, from the Latin intercedo, "to be or go between" (ref. Hordeum intercedens)
  • inter'ior: inner, nearer, on the near side (ref. Carex interior)
  • inter'ius: my Latin dictionary gives "inwardly, too short" for the meaning of this word. Jaeger's Source-Book of Biological Names and Terms says for interius, see interior, but there is no entry for interior. David Hollombe says it is the comparative form of 'interior,' i.e. 'more interior' for its distribution (ref. Delphinium californicum ssp. interius)
  • interme'dia/interme'dium/interme'dius: intermediate, indicating an observation that a species was probably considered as being halfway or partway between two others with regard to some particular characteristic, e.g. tall, short, and "intermediate" (ref. Amsinckia intermedia, Boerhavia intermedia, Camissoniopsis intermedia, Crepis intermedia, Cryptantha intermedia, Calochortus weedii var. intermedius, Eremothera boothii ssp. intermedia)
  • intermonta'na/intermonta'nus: between or among the mountains (ref. Polygala intermontana)
  • interra'ta: buried or interred (ref. Nolina interrata)
  • interrup'ta/interrup'tus: interrupted in some fashion (ref. Apera interrupta, Lonicera interrupta, Polypogon interruptus)
  • intertex'ta: intertwined in some fashion. David Hollombe sent me the following regarding Stylocline intertexta: "After pointing out the similarities to Stylocline psilocarphoides and S. micropoides and speculating on a possible hybrid origin for S. intertexta, J. D. Morefield wrote: 'The epithet intertexta suggests this recombination of traits, as well as its intermediate geographic distribution.' " (ref. Navarretia intertexta, Stylocline intertexta)
  • intrafrac'tum: from the Latin intra, "inside," and frango, "to break," fractus, "broken," this taxon's common name in the Jepson Manual is 'jointed buckwheat' (ref. Eriogonum intrafractum)
  • intrica'tus: tangled (ref. Amelanchier intricatus, Cercocarpus intricatus)
  • intro-: inside
  • in'tybus: derived from Egyptian tybi, "January," the month that this species was customarily eaten (ref. Cichorium intybus)
  • In'ula: a Latin name for a plant called elecampane which is itself a corruption of the ante-Linnaean name Enula campana, so called from its growing wild in Campania. This was an ancient herb described by both Pliny and Dioscorides. Botanical.com says, "Inula, the Latin classical name for the plant, is considered to be a corruption of the Greek word Helenion which in its Latinized form, Helenium, is also now applied to the same species. There are many fables about the origin of this name. Gerard tells us: 'It took the name Helenium of Helena, wife of Menelaus, who had her hands full of it when Paris stole her away into Phrygia.' Another legend states that it sprang from her tears: another that Helen first used it against venomous bites; a fourth, that it took the name from the island Helena, where the best plants grew." It had many medicinal uses such as among other things for coughs, consumption, asthma and bronchitis (ref. genus Inula)
  • inunda'ta: flooded, or growing in places likely to be flooded or at least immersed in water (ref. Phacelia inundata)
  • -inus/-inum: a Greek or Latin adjectival suffix which indicates color or appearance, resemblance (e.g. ursinus, "like a bear"; lilacina, "lilac in color") or belonging to, of or from (bernardinus, "belonging to or from San Bernardino"; clementinus, "belonging to or from San Clemente Island")
  • invenus'tus: plain, unadorned (ref. Calochortus invenustus)
  • inver'sus: turned over, inverted (ref. Astragalus inversus)
  • invi'sa: unseen, not visible (ref. Silene invisa)
  • involucra'ta/involucra'tus: provided with an involucre, a ring of bracts surrounding or enclosing a head of several flowers (ref. Lonicera involucrata, Mentzelia involucrata, Cyperus involucratus)
  • invol'vens: rolled up
  • inyoen'se/inyoen'sis: of or from Inyo (County? Mountains?) (ref. Lomatium inyoense, Arabis inyoensis, Astragalus inyoensis, Perityle inyoensis)
  • iodan'thus: violet-flowered (ref. Astragalus iodanthus)
  • Ionac'tis: from the Greek ion and aktis meaning "violet ray" (ref. genus Ionactis)
  • ionophyl'la/ionophyl'lus: from the Greek ion, "violet," and phyllus, "leaves," thus having violet-colored leaves (ref. Packera ionophylla)
  • -ior: a suffix commonly used to indicate a greater extent of whatever adjectival characteristic it is attached to, e.g. brevior, "shorter," gracilior, "more slender," latior, "broader," robustior, "more robust," elatior, "taller"
  • Iph'eion: a Greek name of obscure origin. Umberto Quattrocchi says: "possibly from the Greek iphyon, the name of the spike-lavender, a species of Lavandula for Theophrastus or from iphios, "strong, mighty," another of the many unexplained names given by Rafinesque (ref. genus Ipheion)
  • Ipomoe'a: from the Greek ips, "a worm," and homoios, "like," thus "like a worm," referring to the twining habit of the plant's growth (ref. genus Ipomoea)
  • Ipomop'sis: from the Greek ipo, "to strike," and opsis, "appearance," thus of striking appearance? An article written by James Edward Smith (?) in Rees' Cyclopaedia gives the Greek root ipoo for "striking." "Rees's Cyclopaedia, or The New Cyclopaedia, or, Universal Dictionary of the Arts and Sciences was edited by Revd. Abraham Rees (1743-1825). It appeared in parts between January 1802 and August 1820, and ran to 39 volumes of text, 5 volumes of plates, and an atlas. It contains around 39 million words, and more than 500 of the articles are of monograph length. An American edition, with 42 volumes of text and 6 of plates was published by Samuel Bradford of Phildelphia between 1806-1822, with additional American material. It was written by about 100 contributors, most of whom were nonconformists. They were specialists in their fields, covering the arts and humanities, agriculture, science, technology, and medicine. Its engraved plates are particularly fine, being the work of artists like John Farey, Jr., and the engraver Wilson Lowry. At the time of its publication Rees's Cyclopaedia was thought to be subversive, and the editors went out of their way to emphasise their Englishness." (from Wikipedia)  The type of the genus, Ipomopsis rubra, was collected by Mark Catesby and described by Johann Jakob Dillenius in Hortus Elthamensis. Linnaeus named it Polemonium rubrum in his Species Plantarum. It was subsequently renamed Ipomoea rubra in J.A. Murray's update of Linnaeus' Systema Vegetabilium, then renamed again Ipomopsis elegans in Andre Michaux's Flora Boreali-Americana (1803). Carl Ludwig Willdenow published it as Cantua coronopifolia in 1797 and Christiaan Hendrik Persoon had transfered it into Gilia in 1805, so this is what many botanists continued to refer to it as. James Smith in Exotic Botany (1806) says: "About its genus there as been much uncertainty. Linnaeus first made it a Polemonium and then an Ipomoea, but it agrees with neither. The learned Jussieu supposed it might be reduced to his genus of Cantua, and has lately again advanced that opinion; but the want of winged seeds, the membranous calyx, and the totally different habit, abundantly justify Michaux in establishing it as a new genus; and we adopt his name, which seems to express the dazzling brilliance of the flower." Thomas Nuttall in his Genera of North American Plants, renamed it Ipomeria coronopifolia and said: "I have, in restoring this genus of Michaux, altered his name merely for the sake of euphony [meaning an agreeable sound, especially in the phonetic quality of words], but retained the allusion, without venturing to criticize its questionable composition as formed in part from the name of the preceding genus, Ipomoea, with the addition of -opsis as indicative of their common resemblance... That Michaux's name has been independently derived from the Greek, without any reference to Ipomoea, and founded upon its striking appearance, as supposed by the editor of the [above referenced] article in Rees's Encyclopedia, seems altogether improbable." The fern authority and geologist Edgar T. Wherry was the first in 1936 to utilize its current name. Umberto Quattrocchi's Dictionary of Plant Names simply says of the generic epithet Ipomopsis, "resembling Ipomoea." The foregoing is a perfect example of how difficult it is sometimes to say what a specific epithet means, what it refers to, or from where it is derived. Thanks to David Hollombe for most of the references included (ref. genus Ipomopsis)
  • i'ria: this name was used as a generic name by Hendrik van Rheede tot Drakenstein in his 12-volume Hortus Indicus Malabaricus about 1693, but I have no idea what it refers to (ref. Cyperus iria)
  • i'rio: an old reference to a kind of cress (ref. Sisymbrium irio)
  • I'ris: named for the Greek goddess of the rainbow (ref. genus Iris)
  • I'satis: from the classical Greek names isatis or isatidos applied to this herb which provided the blue dye which ancient Britons used to stain their bodies (ref. genus Isatis)
  • ischae'mum: after much searching I found a single reference to the meaning of this name on the website of the Robert W. Freckmann Herbarium at the University of Wisconsin - Stevens Point, which says: "ancient name, presumably from Greek ischaemos for 'styptic, blood-restraining,' from supposed styptic properties," a name applied to some substance used to reduce bleeding (ref. Bothrichloa ischaemum, Digitaria ischaemum)
  • Isme'lia: this was a name that was originally published for an African annual called I. carinata. Ismelia is a place name in Egypt, but beyond that I haven't got any information on the eeponymy of this name. Cassini like Rafinesque often published names with no explanation for them (ref. genus Ismelia)
  • Isoco'ma: from the Greek meaning "an equal hair-tuft," and referring to the flowers (ref. genus Isocoma)
  • Iso'etes: from the Greek isos, "ever," and etas, "green," implying the character of being evergreen. Note: This is an example of the problem of defining Greek or Latin words, i.e. "ever" in this item, and "equal" in the next. Perhaps it is used with the meaning of equally green all year round, thus evergreen (?) (ref. genus Isoetes)
  • Isol'epis: from the Greek isos, "equal," and lepis, "scale," referring to the glumes (ref. genus Isolepis)
  • Iso'meris: from the Greek isos, "equal," and meris, "a part," describing the equally divided pod (ref. genus Isomeris)
  • Isopy'rum: an ancient Greek name from Isopyron, a species of Fumaria, for its grain-like fruit (ref. genus Isopyrum)
  • -issima/-issimum/-issimus: a suffix connoting the extreme form of an adjective, as for example with aculeatissimus, "very prickly," from aculeatus, "prickly" and ramosissimus, "very branched," from ramosus, "branched" (see also -ima/-imum/-imus). Oddly, Stearn's Botanical Latin does not seem to include this as one of his explained suffixes although it is a commonly used one
  • -ita/-itum/-itus: a suffix often (but not always) denoting possession, as in vestita, "having clothes or clothed with hair," aurita "having ears," crinita, "having long hair," tripartita, "having three parts," compositum, "having many parts"
  • ital'ica/ital'icum/ital'icus: of or belonging to Italy (ref. Populus nigra var. italica, Arum italicum, Gladiolus italicus)
  • -ites: a Greek suffix meaning "belonging to, having to do with"
  • -iticus: a Greek adjectival suffix indicating fitness or capability for something
  • -ium/-ius: characteristic of (e.g. regius, "royal, princely, characteristic of a prince" from rex, "king")
  • I'va: a Latin derivation from the mint Ajuga iva, which has a similar aroma (ref. genus Iva)
  • Ives'ia/Ive'sia: named after Eli Ives (1779-1861), a Yale University pharmacologist and professor active in the Connecticut Medical Society and involved with the founding of the Medical Institution of Yale College. Botany was one of the courses he taught and he established a botanical garden as part of the medical school. He pioneered in the teaching of childhood medicine and gave the first course in pediatrics in the United States. "Professor of Diseases of Children, Materia Medica and Botany, [he was] a graduate of Yale College in 1799, studied medicine with his father and with Eneas Munson and attended medical lectures under Benjamin Rush, Caspar Wistar, and Benjamin Smith Barton at the University of Pennsylvania. Although his mentor Munson, was named professor of materia medica and botany, the title was largely honorary for Munson was over 80 years old . From the beginning, Ives rather than Munson, taught the courses. Widely known for his knowledge of materia medica, Ives established a botanical garden in association with the medical school. He was a pioneer in the teaching of pediatrics in the U.S." Extracted from the website Medicine at Yale 1701-1901. "[He] lectured on materia medica and botany throughout his tenure at Yale. Student notebooks containing his lectures describe the medicinal values of numerous local and foreign botanical treatments and cures as prescribed by Ives. Many of the species that Ives described in his lectures can also be found in Fenn's four volume herbarium. This implies that Ives required his students, or at least those interested in pharmacology, to study and collect the local plants related to medicinal botany. Ives created what is probably one of the first botanical gardens in New England at what is presently the northeast corner of Temple and Wall Street in New Haven. He arranged the indigenous plants following the natural order of Jussieu, the arrangement that Fenn used in his herbarium. Fenn may well have collected local plants for Ives' garden or used plants from it for his collection." Quoted from a Yale Peabody Museum website on Horation Nelson Fenn, one of his many students (ref. genus Ivesia)
  • ivesia'na: after Joseph Christmas Ives (1828-1868), a graduate of the U.S. Military Academy at West Point in 1852, who resigned his commission in 1861 to join the Confederacy and served as an aide to President Jefferson Davis. Before the Civil War began, he was a 1st Lieutenant in the Corps of Topographical Engineers like William Hemsley Emory, and he was commissioned to conduct an expedition to determine the navigability of the Colorado River, about which little was known, as a possible supply route to military posts in southern Utah and New Mexico. He had already done survey work, having been on the Whipple Expedition of 1853-1854. He arranged to have a steamboat built in Philadelphia and its component parts shipped via the Isthmus of Panama to San Francisco and then up the Gulf of California to the mouth of the Colorado. He steamed up past Fort Yuma to approximately where Lake Mead is today, then travelled overland into the Grand Canyon region, exploring its floor for the first time by white men, and investigating other parts of northern Arizona and southern Utah. It was a journey of daring and danger, yet in writing about the Grand Canyon in his diary, he recorded a sentiment that would demonstrate his inability to predict the future of the region: "It looks like the Gates of Hell. The region... is, of course, altogether valueless. Ours has been the first and will undoubtedly be the last, party of whites to visit the locality. It seems intended by nature that the Colorado River along the greater portion of its lonely and majestic way, shall be forever unvisited and undisturbed" (ref. Phacelia ivesiana)
  • -ivum/-ivus: a Latin adjectival suffix indicating some capacity or ability, or possession by or property of (e.g. aestivum, "capable of flowering, ripening or developing in the summer," from aestas, "summer"; sativus, "cultivated or capable of being cultivated," from satus, "a planting"; redivivus, "revived or capable of being brought back to life")
  • Ix'ia: a name used by Pliny for the chameleon plant, from Greek ixos or ixia, "mistletoe or bird-lime" in reference to the sticky sap (ref. genus Ixia)
  • ixio'ides: ixia-like, Ixia being a genus in the iris family (ref. Triteleia ixioides)
  • ixo'des: from the Greek ixos, the mistletoe berry or the mistletoe plant, also bird-lime which is prepared from mistletoe and is a sticky substance smeared on branches to capture small birds, thus according to Jaeger's Source-book of Biological Names and Terms "like bird-lime, sticky" (ref. Phacelia ixodes)

Mojave National Preserve
Along Rt. 58 between Tehachapi and Bakersfield, Kern County.

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