L-R: Brodiaea terrestris ssp. kernensis (Earth brodiaea), Cardamine californica (Milkmaids), Lathyrus vestitus var. alefeldii (San Diego pea), Keckiella antirrhinoides (Yellow penstemon), Mimulus aurantiacus (Bush monkeyflower)


HA-HE
In the following names, the stressed vowel is the one preceding the stress mark. It is not always easy to ascertain where such stress should be placed, especially in the case of epithets derived from personal names. I have tried to follow the principle of maintaining the stress of the original name as outlined in the Jepson Manual, and have abandoned it only when it was just too awkward. In the case of some names, I have listed them twice, reflecting either some disagreement or conflict in the rules of pronunciation, some uncertainty on my part as to the correct pronunciation, or that simply sometimes there is no single correct pronunciation. In other instances, the way I record it is just that which sounds right to my ear. Where no credit is given for photos, they are in public domain mostly from Wikipedia.
  • Habenar'ia: derived from the Latin habena meaning "the rein of a horse," referring to the shape of the rein orchid's spur. The genus Habenaria was published by Carl Ludwig von Willdenow in 1805. (ref. genus Habenaria, now put by Jepson into Piperia and Platanthera)
  • Hackel'ia: named after Josef Hackel (1783-1869), Czech botanist who collected plants in Bohemia. The genus Hackelia was published by Philipp (Filip) Maximilian Opiz in 1839. (ref. genus Hackelia)
  • haematocar'pa: having blood-red fruits, from the Greek haima, "blood," and karpos, "fruit." (ref. Berberis haematocarpa)
  • haematochi'ton: derived from the Greek for "blood" and "coat or tunic," referring to the color of the skin of the bulb. (ref. Allium haematochiton)
  • Hainar'dia: after Pierre Hainard (1936- ), geobotanist and phytogeographer at the University of Lausanne and Curator from 1965 to 1981 of the Jardin Botanique at Geneva, created by the botanist A.P. de Candolle. The genus Hainardia was published in 1967 by Werner Rodolfo Greuter. (ref. genus Hainardia)
  • halepen'se/halepen'sis: of or from Aleppo, northern Syria. (ref. Sorghum halepense, Pinus halepensis)
  • Halimoden'dron: from the Greek halimos, "seaside, maritime," and dendron, "tree," referring to the habitat. The genus Halimodendron was published by Friedrich Ernst Ludwig von Fischer in 1825. (ref. genus Halimodendron)
  • halimo'ides: having the form of or a resemblance to the genus Halimium. (ref. Portulaca halimoides)
  • Halimolo'bos: from the Greek alimos, "of the sea," and lobos, "pod," the name reportedly used because of this plant's resemblance to Alyssum halimifolium. The genus Halimolobos was published in 1836 by Ignaz Friedrich Tausch. (ref. genus Halimolobos)
  • hallea'num/hallia'num: after Elihu Hall (1822-1882), "a farmer with a great interest in botany, collected 300 of the original specimens and had a personal collection of 10,000 specimens, the majority of which are now in the herbarium of the Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago." (from the website of the Illinois State Museum Herbarium Collection). And Al Schneider in his Southwest Colorado Wildflowers website contributes the following: "Farmer, sometimes botanist, one of organizers of Illinois Natural History Society. He and Jared Patterson Harbour apparently contacted or contracted with Parry to lead them, accompany them, and/or collect with them in the Idaho Springs, Colorado area. It was common for multiple sets of plants to be collected and sold to pay for expenses and finance more collecting trips. The Hall-Harbour-Parry summer trip of 1862 seems to have had finances as a (the?) key motivation, for Hall wanted money for a new house and was willing to sell sets of plants quickly and cheaply after the trip (according to Ewan in Biographical Dictionary...). Whatever the motivation and details, the collection was described by Gray and Torrey and they considered it to be quite good, indicating that Hall and Harbour already knew how to collect or received good training from someone, probably Parry." (ref. Epilobium hallianum)
  • hallia'na/hal'lii: see previous entry. (ref. Carex halliana, Agrostis hallii, Lomatium hallii, Viola hallii)
  • hallia'na/hal'lii: after Harvey Monroe Hall (1874-1932), who was born in Illinois, and was an authority on the
      Asteraceae of Southern California, a graduate of and professor of botany at the University of California, and a pioneer in experimental taxonomy. He was the author in 1902 of A Botanical Survey of San Jacinto Mountain, and was a collector of plants in the Mt. Pinos region in 1905 and on Santa Cruz Island in 1908. He was placed in charge of the University of California Herbarium at Berkeley in 1902, became an instructor in botany in 1903, and subsequently became an assistant professor and then an associate professor in 1916. In 1919 he joined the Carnegie Institution in
    Washington, which established its Division of Plant Biology on the Stanford Campus, where he also became a professor of botany. At the same time he became Honorary Curator of the University of California Herbarium, a position which lasted until 1932. After a trip to Europe in 1929 to study natural reserves, he proposed the creation of "Natural Areas," and specifically the White Mountains and Harvey Monroe Hall research areas near Yosemite National Park. There have been references to Harvey Monroe Hall as a one-legged man, and questions have been raised as to how he could have done so much botanizing especially in high, steep, rocky areas such as the San Jacintos with only one leg. Thanks to Tom Chester who began to research this fascinating question, and to Amy Kasameyer, at the University and Jepson Herbaria in Berkeley who found an article by Edmund Jaeger in the Calico Print, July 1953, which revealed the answer. Apparently when Hall was just a boy, he accidentally shot himself in the foot with a shotgun and the wound he sustained resulted in the amputation of his leg above the knee. He was fitted with an artificial leg which allowed him to walk with only a slight limp, and the rest of the story as they say is history. Hall was married to Carlotta Case Hall (1880-1949), a collector of western ferns who was assistant professor of botany at the University of California, Berkeley. She was also a member of the California Academy of Sciences and the taxon Aspidotis carlotta-halliae was named for her. Together they published the highly regarded 1912 field guide A Yosemite Flora. (ref. Hemizonia halliana, Bromus hallii, Caulanthus hallii, Galium hallii, Grindelia hallii, Madia hallii, Tetracoccus hallii)
  • haloden'dron: from the Greek for "salt tree." (ref. Halimodendron halodendron)
  • Halo'dule: possibly from ancient Greek name meaning "under salty water." The genus Halodule was published by Stephan Friedrich Ladislaus Englicher in 1814. (ref. genus Halodule)
  • Haloge'ton: from the Greek hals, "sea, salty," and geiton, "a neighbor," from the habitat. The genus Halogeton was published by Carl Anton von Meyer in 1829. (ref. genus Halogeton)
  • Halora'gis: Umberto Quattrocchi says that this name is derived from the Greek "hals, halos, 'salt, sea' and rhax, rhagos 'a berry, a grape-berry,' referring to the maritime habitat and to the bunched fruits of some species. The genus Haloragis was puiblished in 1776 by Johann Reinhold Forster and Johann Georg Adam Forster (ref. genus Haloragis)
  • hama'ta/hama'tus: hooked. (ref. Navarretia hamata, Lotus hamatus)
  • hamilton'ii: after Mt. Hamilton in the Diablo Range east of San Jose, where Lick Observatory is located. (ref. Coreopsis hamiltonii)
  • ham'mittii: after California botanist Michael Romaine Hammitt (1957-1991). He was born in Arizona and was a collecting partner with Tim Ross, Orlando Mistretta, Jason Rick and Steve Boyd. He made his last collection just two weeks before his death. Steve wrote, ""The specific epithet honors our colleague and esteemed friend, Mike Hammitt, an enthusiastic Southern California naturalist whose untimely death cut short a very promising life of discovery.' (ref. Sibaropsis hammittii)
  • hamulo'sa: having small hooks. (ref. Aristida ternipes var. hamulosa)
  • han'senii: after George Hansen (1863-1908). From Willis Lynn Jepson's The Botanical Explorers of California: "The foothill region of the Sierra Nevada has always been, considering its importance in relation to plant distribution and to ecology, a neglected region from the botanical viewpoint. There have been on the whole few resident botanists in that area, and fewer still whose residence or interest lasted over a long period. For shorter periods, however, good work in exploration and in local studies has been done. In the early years of the nineties the settlers in the foothills of Calaveras County became familiar with the sight of a man who, on holidays and Sundays, went through the canyons and over the hillslopes, into the forests and river bottoms, gathering specimens of native flowers, trees and shrubs and bestowing them in a long tin box which he carried or frequently in a kind of wooden press bound by leather straps. This was George Hansen, a German. The foothill folk sometimes thought his interests in native things strange or eccentric, but he was well liked by all of them on account of his ever cheerful disposition and courteous demeanour. George Hansen was born April 15, 1863 in Hildesheim in Hanover. He was the grandson of J. G. K. Oberdieck, sometimes called the Father of German Pomology [the study of fruit growing]. On account of his services to the state the Prussian Government granted to Herr Oberdieck a free college education to such of his grandsons as desired to work in horticulture. It fell out, in consequence, that the young Hansen, after completing the work of the gymnasium in his birthplace, was sent to Potsdam for the course in the Royal College of Pomology. In 1885 he went to England and took employment with F. Sander & Company, working at first in the orchid house and later making illustrations for "Reichenbachia". He left England in 1887 for San Francisco where he engaged in the nursery business with Hans Plath, one-time President of the California Floral Society. In 1889 he was appointed foreman of the University of California Foothill Experiment Station at Jackson, Amador County, where he remained for about seven years. During this period he prepared the greater portion of his book on the Orchid Hybrids, an enumeration and classification of all hybrids of orchids published up to 1897 (334 pages, 1895-1897), and drew the figures used in illustration of the second part of Greene' s West American Oaks. This illustration work developed his field interest in the genus Quercus and a little later he called attention to many of the interesting and remarkable variants of the native species of oak which he discovered in the region of the Foothill Station. During his summer vacations he collected the native plants in Amador, Calaveras and Alpine counties of the Sierra Nevada with zeal and enthusiasm, and distributed to various of the leading herbaria of the world numbered sets of 1500 specimens containing material of some thirty new species and varieties as published by various botanists of his correspondence. Several novitiates in this collection were named for him, among them being Sitanion hanseni J. G. Smith, Poa hanseni Scribner, Trifolium hanseni Greene, Senecio hanseni Greene, Solanum hanseni Greene, Godetia hanseni Jepson, and Cercospora hanseni Ellis & Everhardt. A narrative of his botanical trips in the central Sierra region of Amador, Calaveras and Alpine counties was published by Mr. Hansen in a little pamphlet entitled "Flora of the Sequoia Region" (23 pp., 1895), being supplemented by a list of the plants collected and distributed in his exsiccatae [dried specimens] (pp. 14). Of his other writings there may be noted "Ceanothus in the Landscape of the Sierra Nevada" (Card. & For. 10: 102, 1897); "Iris Hartwegii Baker" (Card. & For. 10: 95, 1897); "The Lilies of the Sierra Nevada" (Erythea, 7:21-23, 1899); "The Reforesting of the Sierra Nevada" ' (Sierra Club Bulletin 3: 224-229, 1901); "The Hillside Farmer and the Forest" (Sierra Club Bulletin 5: 33-43, 1904). An injury to his spine compelled him to give up charge of the Foothill Station and he removed to Berkeley in 1896. Here he lived for twelve years, devoting himself mainly to his garden, beyond the limits of which in later years he was seldom able to go. He died March 31, 1908. A sympathetic appreciation of his character, written by his friend Charles Murdock, may be found in the Pacific Unitarian (16: 180). Gifted with a buoyant and courageous spirit he was enabled to bear suffering that would have crushed the average man, and he will be long remembered by his friends for his patience and cheerfulness under adversity." (ref. Delphinium hansenii, Selaginella hansenii)
  • Haplopap'pus: derived from the Greek kaploos, meaning "simple" and pappos, "down or fluff," in reference to the single pappus ring. The genus Haplopappus was published by Alexandre Henri Gabriel de Cassini in 1828. (ref. former genus Haplopappus, now divided by Jepson into Ericameria, Hazardia, Isocoma, Machaeranthera, Prionopsis, Pyrrocoma, Stenotus and Tonestus)
  • hardham'iae: after botanist Clare Butterworth Hardham (1918-2010), wife of Dr. John Fraser Hardham. David Hollombe contributes the following: "She was born at Santa Barbara, California. The 1920 census shows her family on a nut farm near Templeton, California, and in the 1930 census in West Hartford, CT. She received her A.B. from Vassar in 1939, [did graduate work at McGill University, Montreal, and received an MS in Botany from UC Santa Barbara], married a doctor, and lived for a while in Woodland Hills. She (and her husband, who died in 2001) had a cattle ranch in Paso Robles. She has published as well as collected, including a collaboration with James Reveal on Chorizanthe and related genera. She is a granddaughter of novelist Elizabeth Von Arnim (which was also her mother's maiden name)." She concentrated on the flora of the Santa Lucia Mountains and Mono County. Her husband was a graduate of Dartmouth College and the Medical School of Harvard University, and was licensed to practise medicine in California in 1947 and lived at Paso Robles from 1950 until his death. (ref. Galium harhamiae)
  • hardin'iae: named after Edith Hardin English (1897-1979), wife of Carl Schurz English, Jr. (see englishii). (ref. Arnica hardiniae)
  • har'fordii: after William George Willoughby Harford (1825-1911), marine taxonomist and botanist whose specimens augmented the early herbarium collections of the California Academy of Natural Sciences.  He was Curator of Conchology from 1867 to 1869 and again from 1873 to 1875 at the Academy, later was Director of the Academy's Museum 1876-1886 and continued from 1899 to 1906 as an assistant in the Museum.  He moved with his family from Rochester, N.Y. to Michigan at an early age.  David Hollombe contributes the following from a biography by Jepson in Madrono, vol. 2:  "While Harford was primarily a conchologist, his interest in the native plants was strong and continually strengthened by his association with Dr. [Albert] Kellogg.  In 1868 and 1869 these two men distributed large and valuable sets of California and Oregon plants to various of the important herbaria."  He lived with Dr. Kellogg for over 40 years and named his only son after him.  Harford and Kellogg were the first to collect on Santa Cruz Island (in 1874) and Santa Rosa Island, thus explaining his name on the Channel Island tree poppy. (ref. Dendromecon harfordii, Melica harfordii)
  • hark'nessii: after Harvey Wilson Harkness (1821-1901). "Dr. Harkness was one of many physicians who came to California in 1849 seeking gold. Unlike most of his colleagues, he was successful. He mined and practiced medicine at Bidwell's Bar on the Feather River before moving his practice to Sacramento in 1850. He was born in Pelham, Massachusetts, the youngest of seven children of a poor Scotch farming family. Five of his siblings died in their youth of tuberculosis. Dr. Harkness received his medical degree from Pittsfield College after serving an apprenticeship with Drs. Barrett and Thompson in Northampton, Massachusetts. Among his patients and friends were Sacramento's notables, including railroad magnates Leland Stanford, Charles Crocker, Collis Huntington, and Mark Hopkins. Dr. Harkness was a trustee for the grant by Governor Stanford to establish Leland Stanford Jr. University. He probably delivered Leland Stanford, Jr. Dr. Harkness took great interest in the transcontinental railroad and was present at the laying of the last rail at Promontory, Utah, May 10, 1869. [In fact it was he who handed the two golden spikes to Governor Stanford to be placed in pre-drilled holes] Dr. Harkness was a member of Sacramento's first Board of Health in 1868, and presented many original scientific papers before the Society. He was Sacramento's first microscopist. Education, finance and fungi were of great interest to Dr. Harkness. He was President of the first Sacramento Board of Education in 1853, and the elementary school named for him still stands at 2147 54th Avenue. Because of astute investments in Sacramento commercial real estate, he was able to retire at age 48 and move to the Pacific Union Club in San Francisco where he devoted full time to the study of Pacific Coast Fungi. He became President of the California Academy of Sciences 1887-1896 which published his work in its bulletins. He prepared a catalog of 2000 genera and species of fungi with a colleague, J.P. Moore, which, along with his collection of 10,000 species, attracted attention throughout the world. Dr. Harkness' cremated remains were buried in Sacramento's Historic City Cemetery after a funeral at the Odd Fellow's Cemetery in San Francisco. His wife, Amelia Griswald Harkness, preceded him in death in 1854, less than a year after their marriage. He never remarried. He was survived by a brother and nephew. His estate was estimated at $150 million." (From a website of the Sierra Sacramento Valley Medical Society) In 1878 he was the first one to find truffles in California. He became involved in the controversy over fossilized tracks found at the Nevada State Prison, tracks which he believed were human, but which turned out to be those of the giant ground sloth. He first collected a sample of the western gall rust fungus (Peridermium harknessii) near Colfax, California in 1876. Unfortunately the type specimen was lost during the 1906 San Francisco earthquake and fire. He also worked on the age of Cinder Cone at Lassen Volcanic National Park which he believed to be fairly recent, but it later turned out to have erupted around 1650. Dr. Harkness was the first superintendent of Sacramento City Schools, and served from 1854 to 1855. He also appears to have been a newspaper editor and publisher. (ref. Leptosiphon (formerly Linanthus) harknessii)
  • harma'la: presumably named after a city in Syria named Harmala, this taxon is called Syrian rue among other things. This is also an old plant name in Arabia. (ref. Peganum harmala)
  • Harmo'nia: named by Bruce Baldwin for Harvey Monroe Hall (1874-1932), see hallii. The genus Harmonia was published by Bruce Baldwin in 1999. (ref. genus Harmonia)
  • harneyen'se: from the Harney Valley, Oregon. (ref. Trifolium eriocephalum var. harneyense)
  • Harpagonel'la: diminutive form of harpago, meaning a small grappling hook, from the calyx spines. The genus Harpagonella was published by Asa Gray in 1876. (ref. genus Harpagonella)
  • harrisonia'na: after George John Harrison (1894-1981), Senior Agronomist and Superintendent of the U.S.D.A. Cotton Field Station in Shafter, California from 1934-1952. He previously worked with Thomas H. Kearney and Robert H. Peebles at Sacaton field Station in Atrizona, on breeding cotton and alkali and drought resistant plants. (ref. Berberis harrisoniana)
  • hartweg'ii: named for Karl Theodor Hartweg (1812-1871), a Geman botanist and plant and seed collector for the
      London Horticultural Society in Columbia, Ecuador, Guatemala, Mexico and California. Many of his ancestors had been gardeners and it was natural that he follow in that tradition. He worked at the Jardin des Plantes in Paris then moved to England to work in the U.K. Horticultural Society’s Chiswick gardens in London. He became an official plant collector and went to the Americas in 1836 on an expedition that lasted seven years. Mexican plants in particular had by his time become a subject of great interest to European horticulturists. Hartweg collected hundreds of specimens of
    plants that were previously unknown and undescribed. The following is from a website entitled Geo-Mexico: The Geography and Dynamics of Modern Mexico: “Hartweg proved to be an especially determined traveler, who covered a vast territory in search of new plants. He collected representative samples and seeds of hundreds and hundreds of species, many of which had not previously been scientifically named or described. Orchids from the Americas were particularly popular in Hartweg’s day. According to Merle Reinkka, the author of A History of the Orchid, Hartweg amassed “the most variable and comprehensive collection of New World Orchids made by a single individual in the first half of the [19th] century”. Shortly after arriving in Veracruz in 1836, Hartweg met a fellow botanist, Carl Sartorius (1796-1872), of German extraction, who had acquired the nearby hacienda of El Mirador a decade earlier. Sartorius collected plants for the Berlin Botanical Gardens. His hacienda, producing sugar-cane, set in the coastal, tropical lowlands, became the mecca of nineteenth century botanists visiting Mexico. From 1836 to 1839, Hartweg explored Mexico, criss-crossing the country from Veracruz to León, Lagos de Moreno and Aguascalientes before entering the rugged landscapes around the mining town of Bolaños in early October 1837. In his own words, reaching Bolaños had involved “travelling over a mountain path of which I never saw the like before”, one “which became daily work by the continual heavy rains.” From Bolaños, Hartweg visited Zacatecas, San Luis Potosí (in February 1838) and Guadalajara, where he did not omit to include a detailed description of tequila making. From Guadalajara, he moved on to Morelia, Angangueo [then an important mining town, now the closest town of any size to the Monarch butterfly reserves], Real del Monte, and Mexico City, from where he sent a large consignment of plant material back to England. Hartweg then headed south to Oaxaca and Chiapas en route to Guatemala, Ecuador, Peru and Jamaica. He arrived back in Europe in 1843. Hartweg visited Mexico again in 1845-46.  After arriving in Veracruz in November 1845, he traversed the country via Mexico City (early December) to Tepic, where he arrived on New Year’s Day 1846, to wait for news of a suitable vessel arriving in the nearby port of San Blas which could take him north to California. In the event he had to wait until May, so he occupied himself in the meantime with numerous botanical explorations in the vicinity, including trips to Ceboruco Volcano. From California, he sent further boxes of specimens back to England, including numerous plants which would subsequently become much prized garden ornamentals. During this trip, he also added several new conifers to the growing list found in Mexico. It is now known that Mexico has more of the world’s 90+ species of pine (Pinus) than any other country on earth. This has led botanists to suppose that it is the original birthplace of the entire genus. It took several years for the boxes and boxes of material sent back to England by Hartweg to be properly examined, cataloged and described. Many of the samples from his early trip were first described formally by George Bentham in Plantae Hartwegianae, which appeared as a series of publications from 1839 to 1842. Among the exciting discoveries were new species of conifers, such as Pinus hartwegii, Pinus ayacahuite, P. moctezumae, P. patula, Cupressus macrocarpa, and Sequoia sempervirens. Hartweg’s collecting prowess is remembered today in the name given to a spectacular purple-flowering orchid, Hartwegia purpurea, which is native to southern Mexico.” The genus Hartwegia was published in his honor in 1831 by German botanist Christian Gottfried Daniel Nees von Esenbeck and there are literally hundreds of taxa which bear his name. (ref. Iris hartwegii, Odontostomum hartwegii, Tauschia hartwegii)
  • hartwright'ii: after Samuel Hart Wright (1825-1905), farmer, shoemaker, botanist, astronomer, and doctor. He was
      born in Peekskill, New York, the son of a Methodist minister. He was a farmer until the age of 25 and received little in the way of formal education, believing that he could teach himself that which was valuable to him, but he fortuitously became interested in mathematics and astronomy. He was married in 1845 and in 1849 sold his first manuscript of astronomical tables for the four principal latitudes of the United States. In 1850 he spent a single term as a teacher at Dundee Academy and the following winter taught at Big Stream. He began studying medicine in 1854 and in 1865
    received from the Geneva Medical College the degree of Doctor of Medicine. He was a man of varied interests such as land surveying, and was an authority on the early history, occupation and other data concerning Yates County, Bluff Point and surrounding area. He became a producer of almanacs, not only for his local area but also for Cuba, Canada, Mexico, the countries of South America, China, Persia and Australia. His wife died in May, 1855, and he remarried in November. In 1856 he started studying botany and in 1866 he received an M.A. from Williams College. In three years he collected more than 3000 specimens of herbarium, also adding species from Europe and others from the South and West, constituting a collection of almost six thousand plants of a value of twelve thousand dollars. He made eight identifications and classifications of new species of the family of the Cyperaceae, which he published in Amer. J. Sci. Ser. II; Bull. Torrey Bot. Club; J. Arnold Arbor. He was further interested in molluscs and he and his son Professor Berlin Wright (1851-1940) were actively involved in southeastern natural history describing 52 new mollusc taxa between 1883 and 1934, and publishing articles on mussels and shell morphology. He also edited the mathematics department of the Yates County Chronicle from 1872 to 1880. (ref. Polygonum hartwrightii) (Photo credit: Find-a-Grave)
  • har'woodii: after Robert Daniel Harwood (1899-1984), a student at Pomona about the.time Philip Munz arrived there. A.B. Pomona 1920, PhD in entomology, Cornell, 1928, dissertation: "Ecological study of forest floor inhabitants," assistant in zoology at Pomona 1918-1919 and assistant in botany there 1919-1920. He was later assistant professor at San Diego State 1928-31, associate professor 1931-1935 and professor beginning in 1935 (from American Men & Women of Science). (ref. Astragalus insularis var. harwoodii, Eriastrum sparsiflorum ssp. harwoodii)
  • has'sei: after Hermann Edward Hasse (1836-1915), another of the many figures in the world of botany who were
      medical doctors. He came to Milwaukee with his parents at the age of 9 from Freiburg, Saxony. He attended medical school in St. Louis and graduated at the age of 21, then continued his studies in Europe at the University of Leipzig and then at the University of Wurzburg in Germany, from which he graduated with a degree in medicine. He served as a surgeon in the Union Army during the Civil War and then later practiced in Milwaukee, Desoto, Missouri, and Little Rock, Ark. He came to Los Angeles sometime between 1885 and 1887. From 1888 to 1905 he was chief surgeon
    at the "Soldier's Home" (the V.A. in Sawtelle, California), at which time he resigned his position to devote himself to the study of lichens. and became curator of the lichen herbarium of the Sullivant Moss Society in 1913. The name of the Sullivant Moss Society was changed in 1948 to the American Bryological Society. Hasse was a noted authority on lichens, and in 1907 made one of the few collecting trips ever made to Cummings Mountain in Kern County, where he procured material for the type specimen of Fritillaria pinetorum. He published The Lichen Flora of Southern California in 1913. He discovered many new and undescribed species and left behind a fine library of medical and botanical books and an extensive harbarium. He was also a member of the Southern California Academy of Sciences and the Sierra Club. (ref. Dudleya virens ssp. hassei, Vicia hassei)
  • hasta'ta: spear-shaped with the basal lobes facing outward. (ref. Phacelia hastata)
  • Hastings'ia: after Serranus Clinton Hastings (1814-1893), first Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of California.
      The following is quoted from Answers.com: "Born in Jefferson County, N.Y., he was admitted to the Indiana bar in 1836 and moved to Iowa soon afterward. He served in the first Iowa territorial legislature and in 1846 became the first representative of Iowa in Congress. In 1849 he moved to California and became chief justice of the state supreme court while the fusion of common law and Spanish custom was being effected. He established and endowed Hastings College of Law in San Francisco, now part of the Univ. of California." Additional information from the Biographical
    Directory of the United States Congress posted on Infoplease: "Born in Watertown, Jefferson County, N.Y., November 22, 1813; completed a preparatory course at Gouverneur Academy and was graduated from Hamilton College; principal of Norwich Academy in 1834; moved to Lawrenceburg, Ind., in 1835; edited the Indiana Signal in 1836; studied law; was admitted to the bar in 1837 and commenced practice in what is now Burlington, Iowa; when Iowa was made a separate Territory served as a member of the Territorial council 1838-1846 and was president of the council one session; upon the admission of Iowa as a State into the Union was elected as a Democrat to the Twenty-ninth Congress and served from December 28, 1846, to March 3, 1847; was not a candidate for renomination; chief justice of the supreme court of Iowa in 1848; resigned in 1849 and moved to Benicia, Calif.; chief justice of the supreme court of California 1849-1851; attorney general of the State in 1851; at the end of his term of two years retired to private life; founded and endowed Hastings College of Law in the University of California in 1878; engaged in the real estate business; died in San Francisco, Calif., February 18, 1893; interment in St. Helena Cemetery, St. Helena, Calif." The genus Hastingsia was published by Sereno Watson in 1879. (ref. genus Hastingsia)
  • ha'worthii: after the English entomologist, botanist and carcinologis Adrian Hardy Haworth (1768-1833). He was
      the author of Lepidoptera Britannica (1803-1828), the most authoritative work on British butterflies and moths until Henry Tibbats Stainton's Manual in 1857, and named twenty-two new genera of moths. As a young man he was tutored and steered toward a legal career but he had little interest in that subject, and after inheriting the estate of his parents he devoted his full time to the study of natural history. He settled in Little Chelsea,  London, in 1792, and met and came under the influence of William Jones, a prosperous wine merchant and distinguished painter of
    butterflies and moths. His research work was aided by his use of the library and herbarium of his friend Sir Joseph Banks and regular visits to Kew Gardens. He was inducted as a Fellow of the Linnean Society of London in 1798, and later a Fellow of the Horticultural Society.  He was involved in the founding of the Royal Entomological Society of London, having earler been President of its predecessor. He was also a carcinologist specializing in shrimp, and a student of succulents. He was the author of Prodromus Lepidopterorum britannicorum: A concise catalogue of British lepidopterous insects with the times and places of appearance in the winged state,  Saxifragëarum enumeratio, and Complete Works on Succulent Plants. The plant genus Haworthia was named for him in 1809 by Henri August Duval. He died during a cholera outbreak. (ref. Aeonium haworthii)
  • haydenia'na: after geologist Ferdinand Vandeveer Hayden (1829-1887). The following is quoted from the
      Virtual American Biographies website: "...born in Westfield, Massachusetts, 7 September, 1829. He early settled in Ohio, and, after his graduation at Oberlin in 1850, received his medical degree at the Albany Medical College in 1853. During the same year he explored the 'Bad Lands' of Dakota for James Hall, state geologist of New York, and returned with a large and valuable collection of fossil vertebrates. In 1854 he again went west, spent two years in exploring the basin of the upper Missouri, and returned with a large number of fossils, part of which he deposited
    in the St. Louis Academy of Science, and the remainder in the Philadelphia Academy of Natural Sciences. These collections attracted the attention of the authorities of the Smithsonian Institution, and he was appointed geologist on the staff of Lieutenant Gouverneur K. Warren, of the topographical engineers, who was then making a reconnoissance of the northwest, after which, in May, 1859, he was appointed naturalist and surgeon to the expedition sent out for the exploration of the Yellowstone and Missouri rivers under Captain William F. Raynolds. He continued in this capacity until May, 1862, when he entered the United States army as assistant surgeon of volunteers, and was assigned to duty in the Satterlee hospital in Philadelphia, becoming full surgeon on 19 February, 1863, when he was sent to Beaufort, South Carolina, as chief medical officer. In February, 1864, he became assistant medical inspector of the Department of Washington, and in September, 1864, he was sent to Winchester, Virginia, as chief medical officer of the Army of the Shenandoah. This office he held until May, 1865, when he resigned and was given the brevet of Lieutenant-colonel. He was appointed professor of mineralogy and geology in 1865 in the University of Pennsylvania, and held that chair until 1872, when the increased duties of the survey caused his resignation. During the summer of 1866 he again visited the valley of the upper Missouri for the Philadelphia Academy of Sciences, and gathered valuable vertebrate fossils. In 1867 congress provided for the geological survey of Nebraska. Dr. Hayden was directed to perform the work, and continued so occupied until 1 April, 1869, when it was organized under the title of the Geological Survey of the Territories of the United States. From 1869 till 1872 Dr. Hayden conducted a series of geological explorations in Dakota, Wyoming, Utah, and Colorado, the scope of investigation including, besides geology, the natural history, climatology, resources, and ethnology of the region. It was largely in consequence of his explorations and reports that congress was led to set apart the Yellowstone National Park as a perpetual reservation. In 1873 geography was added, and the name of the organization then became the Geological and Geographical Survey of the Territories. Dr. Hayden continued the direction of this survey until 1879, when the then existing national surveys were consolidated into the United States Geological Survey, and Dr. Hayden was made geologist-in-charge of the Montana division. He held this office until 31 December, 1886, when failing health led to his resignation. Dr. Hayden is a member of scientific societies both in the United States and in Europe, and in 1873 was elected to the National Academy of Sciences. In 1887 the degree of LL.D. was conferred on him by the University of Pennsylvania. He has written numerous scientific papers, and his government publications have been very large. The latter include annual reports of his work performed from 1867 till 1879; also a series of 'Miscellaneous Publications' on special subjects written by authorities in the specialties of which they treat, and a series of quarto volumes entitled 'Report of the United States Geological Survey of the Territories.' " (ref. Carex haydeniana)
  • hay'donii: after Marion D. Haydon (c.1839-1891), rancher near Campo in San Diego County. David Hollombe provides the following quotation from Charles Russell Orcutt: "I take great pleasure in dedicating to Mr. Marion D. Haydon, in return for his hospitality and for his directing my attention to various forage plants whose valuable qualities had previously been unsuspected." Haydon was born in Missouri and had lived in Texas. He eventually died from alcohol. He made regular trips into town to drink in the saloon. At the end of his last visit he got on his wagon to drive home and fell off. The coroner ruled that he had died of alcohol poisoning and was dead before he hit the ground. (ref. Acmispon haydonii)
  • hayesia'na: after Sutton Hayes (1827-1863), doctor and naturalist with the El Paso and Fort Yuma Wagon Road Expedition in 1857-1858. Born in Dutchess County, New York, he apparently studied medicine in New York City and possibly elsewhere, although it is unclear when or if he received an M.D. degree. He studied botany for several years during a period of living in Paris, France, returning from Havre de Grace on the ship Sam M. Fox in 1853. After leaving the Wagon Road Expedition, he developed tuberculosis and went to what is now Colon in Panama, collecting there extensively until his death in 1863. Information thanks to David Hollombe. (ref. Iva hayesiana)
  • Hazar'dia: named after Barclay Hazard (1852-1938), a California botanist, born in Newport, RI, the youngest child and only son of Thomas Robinson ("Shepherd Tom") Hazard. From David Hollombe: "The 1880 census shows Barclay at Santa Barbara with his youngest and, at the time only surviving sister (who died later that year) and her husband (another interesting character, Edwin James Dunning, a dentist who had lost his sight 3 years earlier and eventually became an authority on Shakespeare's poetry) At some point, Hazard bought the El Capitan ranch west of Santa Barbara. In 1881 he married Alida G. Blake, who became know as the leading female opponent of women suffrage and as an anti-vice activist. Alida's father, physics professor Eli Whitney Blake Jr., wrote an account of the birds of Santa Cruz Island (published in the Auk). And from C.F. Smith's Flora of the Santa Barbara Region: "In the summer of 1885, Mr. Barclay Hazard, a local resident, visited Santa Cruz Island and noted a small tree that was unusual to him. He called it to the attention of Dr. Edward Lee Greene of the University of California who later named it Lyonothamnus asplenifolius, our Santa Cruz Island Ironwood. In 1886, Greene, apparently excited by this find, came to Santa Barbara and made collecting trips to Santa Cruz and San Miguel islands in July, August, and September. In spite of the late season, Greene managed to collect many species unknown to science. And for Hazard's help in insular botany, a shrubby genus was named Hazardia (Haplopappus)." The genus Hazardia was published by Edward Lee Greene in 1887. (ref. genus Hazardia)
  • ha'zeliae: after Hazel Jane Barton (Mrs. Leonard Allen Wilson, Mrs. Duane Botts Fleet) (1914-2005). She was born in Joseph, Wallowa County, Oregon. The following is quoted from the Find-a-Grave memorial obituary: "Mrs. Fleet spent her first winter in Hells Canyon at Three Creeks at the old Frank Hiltsley Homestead until her family home was built on Johnson Bar. In 1916 the family moved back to the Imnaha River to their ranch at Grouse Creek and then to a ranch at Summit Creek in the Fall of 1917. She graduated from the eighth grade at the Park school in 1928. She attended high school in Enterprise and Eugene. After graduation she worked on her parent's ranch at Summit Creek. She became an avid "horse woman," which she pursued until her health failed. She ran race horses locally on Imnaha and Wallowa County Fairs, winning her fair share of races. Mrs. Fleet was princess at the Pendleton Round-Up in 1933. In 1934 she lost her father Ralph Barton and grandfather Mart Hibbs. In 1935 her mother, brother and sister traded ranches with the McGaffee brothers in Hells Canyon where they ran cattle and horses. In 1936 she married Allen Wilson and the couple worked for Pete Wilson and other ranchers in that area. In 1939 Allen and Hazel and infant son Kim returned to Hells Canyon and worked for Lenora Barton until that fall when they moved onto her father's homestead at Battle Creek on the Oregon side of the Snake River. They ran cattle and horses there until they purchased the Hibbs ranch at Granite Creek. She and Mr. Wilson were noted cougar hunters in Hells Canyon and worked part time for the Nez Perce National Forest as packers and fire lookouts at Dry Diggins, Horse Heaven, Heavens Gate, Cold Springs and Hat Point in the Wallowa-Whitman National Forest. The family worked near Colfax, Wash., one winter, then purchased the old Albert Morgan ranch on the Imnaha where they ran cattle and sheep. Later they returned to the Salmon River country where they worked for the Forest Service at Riggins and Dixie, Idaho. In 1950 she and Mr. Wilson divorced and she took care of her mother at Riggins unitl they moved to La Grande. She worked for several people there and became a noted quarter horse raiser. In 1989 she was named grand marshal of Hells Canyon Mule Days. She married Duane Fleet and the couple farmed in the Grande Ronde Valley for 24 years until Mr. Fleet's death in 2004." (ref. Leptodactylon hazeliae)
  • hearstior'um: named after the Hearst Family Trust, established by William Randolph Hearst, which owns and manages the San Simeon ranch where both of these taxa were found. -Orum is a suffix given to a personal name to convert it to a substantival commemorative epithet when the epithet refers to two or more men or two or more people of mixed genders, and the 'i' as in -iorum is added to personal names that end in a consonant. (ref. Arctostaphylos hookeri ssp. hearstiorum, Ceanothus hearstiorum)
  • He'be: named after Hebe, the Goddess of Youth, daughter of Zeus and Hera, sister of Ares and wife of Hercules after he became a god. She was the cup-bearer to the gods, pouring them nectar and ambrosia whenever they were assembled. She was also worshipped as a goddess of pardons or forgiveness. The name "Hebe" came from Greek word meaning "youth" or "prime of life." The genus Hebe was published by Philibert Commerson in 1789. (ref. genus Hebe)
  • hebecar'pus: pubescent-fruited. (ref. Ranunculus hebecarpus)
  • Hecast'ocleis: from the Greek ekastos, "each," and kleio, "to shut up," hence meaning "each enclosed," each flower being in its own involucre. The genus Hecastocleis was published by Asa Gray in 1882. (ref. genus Hecastocleis)
  • heck'ardii: after Lawrence Ray Heckard (1923-1991) who succeeded Rimo Bacigalupi as Curator of the Jepson Herbarium in 1968. The following is from a Memoriam essay by Susan D'Alcamo, Tsan-Iang Chuang, Lincoln Constance, James C. Hickman and Paul C. Silva at the University of California: "Born April 9, 1923, in the small town of Long Beach on the Washington side of the mouth of the Columbia River, Lawrence was the youngest of six children of Edwin Heckard and Ruby Phair Heckard, whose parents were pioneers. Heckard's family and neighbors survived the Great Depression by living off the bountiful land and sea and taking advantage of foodstuffs washed ashore from ships wrecked on the sand bar at the mouth of the Columbia.  Larry (as he preferred to be called as an adult) could bring tears to the eyes of mothers everywhere by recounting his childhood, mired in the mud of Willapa Bay as he was harvesting oysters, or milking the family cow in order to exchange milk for piano lessons. Reciprocally, Larry had an admirable ability and desire to be a good listener, believing that seemingly inconsequential events make up the fabric of life. Following high school, Larry attended Lower Columbia Junior College at Longview, Washington, where he could live with a married brother (Kenneth). When another brother (Clifford) moved to Seattle, Larry changed to the University of Washington.  During World War II, Larry served in the U.S. Army with stateside duty. Freed of financial problems by the G.I. Bill, he attended Oregon State University with a major in horticulture. At an early age he had developed a deep respect and love for nature, especially plants, and had been exposed to the idea of scientific research by visiting a cranberry grower's research station near his home. Arriving at Berkeley for graduate work in the summer of 1948, he soon settled into an arduous research project on the biosystematics of a taxonomically difficult group of species of the genus Phacelia in the Hydrophyllaceae (waterleaf family) under the guidance of Professor Lincoln Constance. The P. magellanica group ranges widely over cordilleran Western America from Canada to Tierra del Fuego and had been the source of some 60 described taxa. Its complicated intercrossing relationships make a travesty of "the biological definition of species." Heckard's ingenious solution, based on a decade of morphological and cytological analysis, experimental hybridization, and extensive field work, was the creation of a "polyploid pillar complex," which has been widely cited as a model and a classic of biosystematic research.  His companion (Paul Silva, with whom he shared his life for 40 years) having taken a position in the Department of Botany at the University of Illinois in 1952, Heckard joined him in 1954 and continued to write his thesis in absentia. After receiving the doctorate (1955), he was invited to join the faculty at the University of Illinois. In addition to teaching courses in taxonomy, he supervised the laboratory sections of the general botany course, which served more than a thousand students each year. In 1960 the death of G. Thomas Robbins, the assistant to Rimo Bacigalupi, Curator of the Jepson Herbarium, provided an opportunity for Heckard to return to California. He and Silva joined the staffs of the Jepson and University herbaria, respectively. Heckard became Curator of the Jepson Herbarium following Bacigalupi's retirement.  On joining the staff of the Jepson Herbarium, Heckard shifted the focus of his research to the family Scrophulariaceae (figworts), which is represented in California by several large genera. He soon teamed up with another of Constance's former students, T.I. Chuang, who held a permanent position at Illinois State University but spent each summer in Berkeley. Together they produced monographs on Cordylanthus (bird's beak), Orthocarpus (owl's clover), and Castilleja (Indian paintbrush). With respect to geography, Heckard was particularly interested in Snow Mountain, a little-known massif in northwestern California that turned out to be of special floristic importance. He was joined in his botanical exploration of this area by James C. Hickman, a recent addition to the Jepson Herbarium staff. Together they backpacked extensively on the mountain, studying the plant communities and collecting specimens, many of which represented species not previously recorded from the region.  The difficulty of trying to identify these plants by using existing resources emphasized the urgent need for an up-to-date statewide floristic account. Thus began the monumental effort to revise Jepson's Manual of the Flowering Plants of California, which had been published in 1925 and used in high schools and colleges throughout the state. The project, funded by individuals, private foundations, and government agencies, grew to include nearly 200 authors, several botanical artists, and a small administrative staff. Unfortunately, Heckard did not live to see the revised manual, which was published by the University of California Press early in 1993 under the editorship of Hickman, but he was aware that it was to be dedicated to him. He contributed significantly to the project, drawing upon his vast knowledge of California and its flora, his excellent relationships with botanists nationwide, his acute ideas on organization and format, and his financial resources. His official role was principal consultant and chairman of the editorial board.  Heckard was an officer in several scientific societies, including the American Society of Plant Taxonomists (secretary and program chairman, 1961-1966) and the California Botanical Society (president, 1971), but it was his service with the California Native Plant Society that was most arduous and satisfying. He thoroughly enjoyed working and socializing with this diverse group of persons who are held together by their love for California and its native plants. His warmth, good humor, and generosity endeared him to everyone, especially amateurs who approached him for answers to taxonomic questions and were amazed at the ready accessibility of this professional botanist. Heckard served the California Native Plant Society for many years as a director, as corresponding secretary, and as a member of the Rare Plant Advisory Committee, preparing the great bulk of the early status reports on rare and endangered species, helping to write the first-ever rare plant legislation, and collaborating in the preparation of the now-famous Inventory of California's rare plants. In 1988 he was made a fellow of that society in recognition of his numerous and important contributions. He was elected a fellow of the California Academy of Sciences in 1970.  Aside from botany, Heckard's chief interest in life was music and travel. He played piano regularly for his own enjoyment and relaxation. He was a generous supporter of the San Francisco Opera, San Francisco Ballet, Berkeley Repertory Theatre, and numerous conservation organizations. Heckard was a scientist of great integrity, whose research was both critical and constructive. He was also a caring and unselfish individual, freely sharing what he knew and working well with others. His wide knowledge, keen insight, and thoughtful judgment were hallmarks of his invaluable biosystematic contributions. Shortly before his death, Heckard and Silva narrowly escaped from the firestorm that destroyed their home in the Oakland Hills. Heckard repaid the generosity of his benefactor by bequeathing most of his estate to the Jepson Herbarium. He is survived by his sister, Lucile Re Heckard, in addition to his brothers and his companion." The fact that he has only a single taxon named for him is no indication of the tremendous contribution he made to California botany. (ref. Lepidium latipes var. heckardii)
  • heck'neri: after John Henry Heckner (1882-1938), who was born of Norwegian immigrant parents. He lived with his family in Utah, Idaho, Oregon and Washington, where his father edited and printed a Methodist missionary publication. He was in Oregon by 1900 where he later farmed in Jackson County. He and a friend, Edgar Crawford, took a trip as apprentice and cabin-boy on the schooner E.B. Jackson, leaving Aberdeen, Washington, on January 23, 1902 reaching Sydney on March 28, and returned on August 3, 1902. While he was gone his mother died of typhoid fever. He collected Sedum heckneri in 1931 in Jackson Co., OR and Oreobroma heckneri, probably the same year, in Trinity Co., CA. He was a regular contributor to a number of flower magazines such as Horticulture in the 1930’s. In the latter part of his life, he and his wife moved to Jacksonville, Oregon where he established a nursery growing thousands of seedlings of native lilies and other bulbs. Sadly, one day he wife was taken to the hospital with a ruptured appendix, and she died. Heckner was distraught and sent a letter to the editor of the local paper, his last, saying that he planned to do away with himself and that it would be useless to look for his body which was found years later in the Siskiyou Mountains. A memorial article about him written in 1965 by his friend Lawrence Crocker of Medford, Oregon, includes this rather mysterious comment about his departure from Australia: “His departure from that country was sudden, and he indicated that certain authorities were interested in his return there.” His name is also on Lewisia heckneri. (ref. Sedum laxum ssp. heckneri)
  • Hedeo'ma: from the Greek hedus, "sweet," and osme, "odor," an ancient name for a strongly aromatic mint. The genus Hedeoma was published by Christiaan Hendrik Persoon in 1807. (ref. genus Hedeoma)
  • Hed'era: the classical name for ivy, this was supposedly the sacred plant of Bacchus, God of wine. (ref. genus Hedera)
  • hedera'cea: of or pertaining to ivy. (ref. Glecoma hederacea, Sida hederacea)
  • hederifo'lia: with leaves like those of ivy, genus Hedera. (ref. Physalis hederifolia var. fendleri, Veronica hederifolia)
  • Hedych'ium: from the Greek hedys, "sweet," and chion, "snow," referring to the sweet-scented, white flowers. The genus Hedychium was published by Johann Gerhard Koenig in 1783. (ref. genus Hedychium)
  • Hedyp'nois: from the Greek words for 'sweet' and 'breath,' a name of Pliny's for a kind of wild endive. The genus Hedypnois was published by Philip Miller in 1764. (ref. genus Hedypnois)
  • heer'mannii/heermann'ii:named after Dr. Adolphus Lewis Heermann (1821-1865), U.S. Army physician, naturalist,
      ornithologist, explorer and plant collector on the Pacific Railroad Survey first under Lt. J.G. Parke and then under Robert S. Williamson in 1853. He was born in New Orleans and supposedly died in a hunting accident in Bexar County, Texas, stumbling while his rifle discharged and killed him. These circumstances have not been verified. After his father’s death in 1833, he was educated at an exclusive boy’s school in New Haven, CT, and then continued his education in Europe. Adolphus and his brother Theodore returned to the United States in 1842. He travelled throughout the U.S.
    collecting samples and cataloging various species of birds, fish, reptiles, and plants. Heermann’s kangaroo rat (Dipodymys heermannii), endemic to California, was named for him, as was Heermann’s gull (Larus heermannii), Heermann’s song sparrow (Melospiza melodia heermani) and at least twelve species of plants. Many people have seen the photo included here and associate Heermann with the life of a mountain man, but according to an article entitled "Updating the Life and Death of A.L. Heermann" in the journal Cassinia, in reality he was a “well-educated and wealthy individual who dedicated his life to the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia and to collecting natural history material.” This article also gives good evidence for the birthdate of 1821 which is not in accordance with that often provided as 1827. (ref. Eriogonum heermannii var. argense, Eriogonum heermannii var. floccosum, Holocarpha heermannii, Lotus heermannii)
  • hel'enae: after Mt. St. Helenae in eastern Sonoma County. (ref. Erythronium helenae)
  • Helen'ium: said to be named by Linnaeus after Helen of Troy, according to the legend that these flowers sprang up from the ground where her tears were supposed to have fallen. The genus Helenium was published by Carl Linnaeus in 1753. (ref. genus Helenium, also Inula helenium)
  • Helianthel'la: a diminutive of Helianthus, thus 'little sunflower.' The genus Helianthella was published by John Torrey and Asa Gray in 1842. (ref. genus Helianthella)
  • Helian'themum: from the Greek helios, "sun," and anthemon, "flower," because the flowers open only in the sun. The genus Helianthemum was published in 1754 by Philip Miller. (ref. genus Helianthemum)
  • Helian'thus: derived from two Greek words helios, "sun," and anthos, "flower," in reference to the sunflower's supposed tendency to always turn toward the sun. The genus Helianthus was published by Carl Linnaeus in 1753. (ref. genus Helianthus)
  • Helichry'sum: helichrysos and helichrysum were Latin names for the herb marigold, from Greek helisso, "to wind, to turn around," and chrysos, "gold." The genus Helichrysum was published by Philip Miller in 1754. (ref. genus Helichrysum)
  • Helio'meris: from the Greek helios, "sun," and meris, "a part or portion," in apparent reference to the flowering heads. The genus Heliomeris was published in 1848 by Thomas Nuttall. (ref. genus Heliomeris)
  • helioscop'ia: Pliny the Elder's The Natural History (edited by John Bostock) at the Online Books Page contains the following: "A fourth kind of tithymalos (the Euphorbia helioscopia of Linnæus) is known by the additional name of 'helioscopios.' It has leaves like those of purslain, and some four or five small branches standing out from the root, of a red colour, half a foot in height, and full of juice. This plant grows in the vicinity of towns: the seed is white, and pigeons are remarkably fond of it. It receives its additional name of 'helioscopios' from the fact that the heads of it turn with the sun. Taken in doses of half an acetabulum, in oxymel, it carries off bile by stool: in other respects it has the same properties as the characias, above-mentioned." Also noted are comments by Antoine Laurent Apollinaire Fee that the statement about pigeons is doubtful and that the assertion that the heads turn with the sun has not been born out by 'modern' observations. (ref. Euphorbia helioscopia)
  • Heliotrop'ium: from the Greek helios, "sun," and trope, "turning," thus meaning "sun-turning," either a reference to the summer solstice when the first described species bloomed, or to the turning of flowers toward the sun, a characteristic of many species known as heliotropism. The genus Heliotropium was published by Carl Linnaeus in 1753. (ref. genus Heliotropium)
  • Helip'terum: from the Greek helisso, "to wind, to turn around," and pteron, "a wing or feather," in reference to the plumed and feathery pappus. The genus Helipterum was published by Augustin Pyramus de Candolle in 1837. (ref. genus Helipterum)
  • he'lix: winding around. (ref. Hedera helix)
  • helleborin'e: from the Greek helleboros, the name of a kind of plant called the hellebore, a genus of some 15 species native mostly to Europe and especially the Balkans. Despite the common names of a couple of helleborine species, Christmas rose and Lenten rose, they are actually in the buttercup family. (ref. Epipactis helleborine)
  • hel'leri: after Amos Arthur Heller (1867-1944), American botanist who was one of the most prolific plant collectors of western North America from 1892 to 1940 and whose specimens are included in the Herbarium of the California Academy of Sciences. Wikipedia provides the following information: He was born in Danville, PA, and achieved a B.A. degree and a Master’s degree in botany from Franklin & Marshall College. From 1896 to 1898, Heller was a professor of Botany at the University of Minnesota, following which he worked for the next couple of years on the Vanderbilt Expedition to Puerto Rico under the auspices of the New York Botanical Garden. He joined the California Academy of Sciences in San Francisco as a professor of botany starting in 1905. He and his wife, Emily Gertrude Heller, founded the botanical journal Muhlenbergia and Heller continued to edit that journal until 1915. While living in Los Gatos, California, south of San Francisco from 1904 to 1908, Heller collected extensively in central California. He also obtained an impressive collection from Puerto Rico. In 1913, Heller moved to Chico, California, and taught at the local high school, but continued to collect botanical specimens. His first herbarium of over 10,000 sheets is at the Brooklyn Botanical Garden and his second herbarium and library is at the University of Washington, in Seattle. At the University of Washington, Heller's Puerto Rico plant collecting itineraries of 1900 and 1902–1903 and their utility for the historical study of endangered plants are housed. His wife  frequently collaborated with him both in the collection of specimens as well as illustrating his numerous publications. He collected on Santa Catalina Island in 1908, and as a young man botanized and collected extensively in the Southern Appalachians of North Carolina, including finding what came to be called Heller’s blazing star, Liatris helleri. (ref. Cordylanthus helleri)
  • Helminthothe'ca: from the Greek helminthos, "worm," and theca, "case or container," alluding possibly to the shape of the fruits. The genus Helminthotheca was published by Johann Gottfried Zinn in 1757. (ref. genus Helminthotheca)
  • helo'des: growing in marshes.
  • Hemerocal'lis: from the Greek hemera, "day," and kallos, "beauty," thus meaning "beauty for a day," in reference to the fact that the blooms last only a single day. The genus Hemerocallis was published by Carl Linnaeus in 1753. (ref. genus Hemerocallis)
  • hemi-: Greek prefix meaning "half."
  • hemiendy'tus: from the Greek hemi, "half," and endyton, "garment, dress," thus "half-dressed?" in possible reference to the frequent absence of one (or both) bracts subtending the flower. (ref. Juncus hemiendytus)
  • Hemieva: 1/2 of well (?), from hypanthium. "Eu-' is a prefix used before roots beginning with a consonant and 'Ev-' is a prefix used before roots beginning with a vowel, meaning 'good, well, true, nice.' The genus Hemieva was published by Constantine Samuel Rafinesque in 1836. (ref. genus Hemieva)
  • Hemito'mes: from the Greek hemi, "half," and tome, "division, section" and hemitomos, "cut in two, a kind of cup," meaning "half eunuch, for 1 anther sac thought to be sterile." The genus Hemitomes was published by Asa Gray in 1857. (ref. genus Hemitomes)
  • Hemizonel'la: diminutive of Hemizonia. The genus Hemizonella was published by Asa Gray in 1874. (ref. genus Hemizonella)
  • Hemizo'nia: from hemi, "half," and zone, "a band or circular mark," in reference to the phyllaries which half encircle the ray achenes. The genus Hemizonia was published by Augustin Pyramus de Candolle in 1836. (ref. genus Hemizonia)
  • henderson'ii: after Louis Fourniquet Henderson (1853-1942), whom the Native Plant Society of Oregon has dubbed the "Grand Old Man of Northwest Botany." Henderson lived through the Civil War in Mississippi. His lawyer father was murdered in New Orleans during the Reconstruction period. He studied botany at Cornell and travelled west in 1874, moving to Portland three years later to take a teaching position. It was then that he began his serious botanizing in Washington and Oregon. He was Professor of Botany at the University of Idaho from 1893 to 1908. Sometime during this period his herbarium was destroyed by a fire, resulting in the loss of some 85,000 specimens. He became Curator of the Herbarium of the University of Oregon sometime around 1924, a position which he held for 15 years. (ref. Astragalus accidens var. hendersonii, Dodecatheon hendersonii)
  • hepatico'ideum: having the form or appearance of Hepatica, the liverwort. (ref. Delphinium patens ssp. hepaticoideum)
  • heracleo'ides: like genus Heracleum. (ref. Eriogonum heracleoides)
  • Herac'leum: named for Hercules, either because he was supposed to have used it first for medicine, or because he was a mortal of great size and strength, which relates to the large stature of some of its ssp. The genus Heracleum was published by Carl Linnaeus in 1753. (ref. genus Heracleum)
  • herba'cea: herbaceous, not woody. (ref. Ageratina herbacea)
  • Herissan'tia: after Louis Antoine Prosper Hérissant (1745-1769), French physician, naturalist and poet, author of Eloge Historique de J. Gonthier d’Andernach, Medecin ordinaire de Francoisi (1765), a biography of teacher and professor of medicine Guenther von Andernach. The genus Herissantia was published in 1788 by Friedrich Kasimir Medikus. (ref. genus Herissantia)
  • hermaphrodit'ica: having both male and female reproductive organs. (ref. Callitriche hermaphroditica)
  • Hermid'ium: a diminutive form of the name of the Greek god Hermes, and a genus placed by Jepson in Mirabilis. The genus Hermidium was published by Sereno Watson in 1871. (ref. genus Hermidium)
  • Herniar'ia: from the Latin hernia, "to rupture," in past times called rupturewort or burstwort, and a plant that was supposedly effective for the treatment of hernias. The genus Herniaria was published by Carl Linnaeus in 1753. (ref. genus Herniaria)
  • hes'pera: from the Greek hesperos, "of or at evening, western, the west." (ref. Parietaria hespera)
  • Hesper'evax: western Evax, from hesperos, "west," and the genus Evax. (ref. genus Hesperevax)
  • Hesperidan'thus: from the Greek hesperis, hesperidos, "western, evening," and anthos, "flower." A species which was originally in Streptanthus and Iodanthus was contained within a section of Thelypodium originally published as Hesperidanthus and that species had some resemblance to genus Hesperis. The genus Hesperidanthus was published by Per Axel Rydberg in 1907. (ref. genus Hesperidanthus)
  • hesper'idis/Hesper'is: from the Greek hespera, "the evening," alluding to the time of the day when some of these flowers are most fragrant. (ref. Streptanthus hesperidis, genus Hesperis)
  • hesper'ium/hesper'ius: of the west, of the evening (since the sun sets in the west). (ref. Delphinium hesperium, Polypodium hesperium, Symphyotrichum lanceolatum ssp. hesperium)
  • Hesperocal'lis: from the Greek hesperos, "of or at evening, western, the west," and kallos, "beauty," and translated as "evening or western beauty" because the sun sets in the west. J. Chris Pires in a 2004 Madroño article states that the genus was named in 1867 by Asa Gray who apparently thought there was a relationship between Hesperocallis and Hemerocallis, an eastern (hemisphere) genus, and gave it its name in 1868 to suggest that affinity. (ref. genus Hesperocallis)
  • Hesperochi'ron: from the Greek hesperos, "evening or western" and Chiron, a Centaur supposedly skilled in medicine. The genus Hesperochiron was published in 1871 by Sereno Watson. (ref. genus Hesperochiron)
  • Hesperoc'nide: from two Greek words hespero, "west," and knide, "nettle." The genus Hesperocnide was published by John Torrey in 1857. (ref. genus Hesperocnide)
  • Hesperocyp'aris: Greek for 'western cypress.' The genus Hesperocyparis was published in 2009 by Jim A. Bartel and Robert A. Price. (ref. genus Hesperocyparis)
  • Hesperoli'non: from the Greek hesperos, "western," and linos, "flax." The genus Hesperolinon was published by John Kunkel Small in 1907. (ref. genus Hesperolinon)
  • Hesperome'con: from the Greek hesperos, "western, evening," and mekon, "poppy." The genus Hesperomecon was published in 1903 by Edward Lee Greene. (ref. genus Hesperomecon)
  • Hesperosti'pa: western Stipa. The genus Hesperostipa was published by Mary Elizabeth Barkworth in 1903. (ref. genus Hesperostipa)
  • Hesperoyuc'ca: from the Greek hespero, "western," and yucca, the yucca plant, or the plant like a yucca from the west. The genus Hesperoyucca was published by John Gilbert Baker in 1892. (ref. genus Hesperoyucca)
  • hes'seae: after Vesta Florence Hesse (1901-1982). The following is quoted from John Hunter Thomas's The History of Botanical Collecting in the Santa Cruz Mountains of Central California (1961): "Vesta F. Hesse is one of the most astute collectors who has ever dealt with the local flora. The following is a brief account of her life which she sent me in February 1959: 'I was born in Boulder Creek, California, on Sept. 11, 1901, and graduated from the Boulder Creek Union High School in 1920. I went to college at the University of California in Berkeley, receiving an A.B. degree in 1924, and a secondary school teacher's credential in 1925. I taught in the high school at Angels Camp, Calaveras County, from 1925 to 1927, but was not a particularly good teacher. Teaching was a strain and I thought (mistakenly, as I know now) that it might be easier in another school. However, I was not able to find another position at that time. After staying a few years in Berkeley without finding any satisfactory employment, I came back to Boulder Creek to live. Here I became curious about various wild flowers, and in March 1938 bought a copy of Jepson's Manual of the Flowering Plants of California, so that I would be able to look them up. I had a wonderful time that first year, and identified some 500 species in this area, without paying much attention to Gramineae and Cyperaceae. Since then I have studied plants from all parts of California that were available to me, though the bulk of my collecting has been done in the Santa Cruz Mountains, with emphasis on the San Lorenzo Valley in Santa Cruz County.' Her specimens are to be found in the herbaria at the California Academy of Sciences, the University of California, and at Stanford University. Miss Hesse has published the results of some of her explorations (Hesse, 1957, 1959). and others (for example, Howell, 1949; Lewis and Raven, 1960) have reported upon some of her other finds. Her name is commemorated in Calyptridium parryi Gray var. hesseae Thomas." (ref. Calyptridium parryi var. hesseae)
  • heteran'dra: with stamens or anthers of different forms or sizes. (ref. Clarkia heterandra, Elatine heterandra, Jepsonia heterandra)
  • Heteran'themis: from the Greek heteros "different, various" and Anthemis, a genus in the Asteraceae which this taxon resembles, thus meaning "other or different Anthemis." The genus Heteranthemis was published by Heinrich Wilhelm Schott in 1818. (ref. genus Heteranthemis)
  • Heteran'thera: with different anthers, in most species one anther is different from the other two. The genus Heteranthera was published by Hipólito Ruiz López and José Antonio Pavón in 1794. (ref. genus Heteranthera)
  • heteran'thus: diversely flowered. (ref. Lupinus argenteus var. heteranthus)
  • heterochae'tus: from the Greek heteros, "different," and chaite, "long hair, mane" or from the New Latin chaete, "a bristle." (ref. Scirpus heterochaetus)
  • heterocar'pha: from the Greek heteros, "different," and karphos, "a chip of wood, splinter, nail." (ref. Chaenactis glabriuscula var. heterocarpha)
  • heterochro'ma: of varying colors. (ref. Camissonia heterochroma, Hulsea heterochroma)
  • Heteroco'don: from the Greek heteros, "different," and kodon, "bell," the plant having campanulate flowers of two kinds. The genus Heterocodon was published by Thomas Nuttall in 1843. (ref. genus Heterocodon)
  • heterodon'tum: variably toothed.
  • heterodox'a/heterodox'us: differing from the type of the genus. (ref. Navarretia heterodoxa, Penstemon heterodoxus)
  • Heterodra'ba: from the Greek for different Draba. (ref. genus Heterodraba)
  • Hetero'meles: from the Greek heter, "different," and malus, "apple," perhaps suggesting a meaning such as "differing from related [species] or [genera]." I have been unable to come up with a satisfactory explanation of this name other than to say that it clearly seems to relate genus Heteromeles with genus Malus, and refers in all likelihood to the fruits of these two genera which are pomes. (ref. genus Heteromeles)
  • heteroneur'a: differently or variously nerved. (ref. Carex heteroneura)
  • Heteropo'gon: from the Greek for "differently or variously bearded," referring to the unequal awns on the spikelets. The genus Heteropogon was published by Christiaan Hendrik Persoon in 1807. (ref. genus Heteropogon)
  • heterorhyn'cha: from the Greek heteros, "different," and rhynchos, "a beak, snout." (ref. Polygala heterorhyncha)
  • heterosep'ala: with different sepals, in reference to the unequally-fused sepals. (ref. Gratiola heterosepala)
  • heterosper'ma: with different seeds. (ref. Atriplex heterosperma)
  • Heterothe'ca: derived from the Greek heteros, "different," and theke, "ovary," from the unlike achenes of the ray and disk florets. The genus Heterotheca was published in 1817 by Alexandre Henri Gabriel de Cassini. (ref. genus Heterotheca)
  • heterotri'cha: from the Greek heteros, "varying," and trichos, "hair." (ref. Layia heterotricha)
  • heterozy'gum: I had thought originally that this epithet derived from the Greek heteros, "varying, different," and zygos, "a yoke, a joining." My supposition was that the 'yoke' is meant in the sense of a 'Y' where one thing produces two things, in this case the fruit that produces 50% aborted seeds, half good, half bad. However Tom Chester has consulted the original publication which shows that the name comes from the biological term "heterozygote: an individual having two different alleles of a particular gene or genes, and so giving rise to varying offspring." Tom presumes that "the evidence for it having two different alleles is the 50% seed abortion caused when the seed doesn't get the good copy." (ref. Gayophytum heterozygum)
  • Heu'chera: after Johann Heinrich von Heucher (1677-1747), professor of medicine and botanist at Wittenberg,
      Germany. He was born in Vienna and was educated extensively in the fields of zoology, minerology and geology. He was enrolled in the University of Wittenberg at the age of 12, studied further at the Universities of Jena and Leipzig, and earned a Master’s degree in 1694 and a doctorate in medicine in 1700, then became a professor of philosophy. He participated in the founding of the first botanical garden at the University of Wittenberg,and published the first list of plants there.  He was appointed in 1713 to be the personal physician of King Augustus II the
    Strong of Poland and moved to Dresden. He reorganized museums there and created a building for a collection of natural history, was appointed Director General and Special of the Scientific Galleries,  then became a professor of medicine at the University of Wittenberg. In 1729 he became a member of the Royal Society. A year before his death, in 1746, he sold his private library of about 4000 volumes including many precious scientific texts to the royal library. He wrote works of some importance in the fields of anatomy, botany and mineralogy. The genus Heuchera was named in his honor in 1753 by Carl Linnaeus and is pronounced HOI-ker-a, not HEW-ker-a. (ref. genus Heuchera)
  • hexan'dra: with six stamens. (ref. Vancouveria hexandra)
  • hexapet'ala: with six petals. (ref. Ludwigia hexapetala)


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