L-R: Cordylanthus maritimus (Saltmarsh bird's beak), Orobanche fasciculata (Clustered broomrape), Phacelia exilis (Lavender windows), Lupinus excubitus var. austromontanus (Southern mountain lupine), Helenium bigelovii (Bigelow's sneezeweed)


G
In the following names, the stressed vowel is the one preceding the stress mark. It is not always easy to ascertain where such stress should be placed, especially in the case of epithets derived from personal names. I have tried to follow the principle of maintaining the stress of the original name as outlined in the Jepson Manual, and have abandoned it only when it was just too awkward. In the case of some names, I have listed them twice, reflecting either some disagreement or conflict in the rules of pronunciation, some uncertainty on my part as to the correct pronunciation, or that simply sometimes there is no single correct pronunciation. In other instances, the way I record it is just that which sounds right to my ear. Where no credit is given for photos, they are in public domain mostly from Wikipedia.
  • gabilanen'sis: of or from the Gabilan Mountains on the Pacific Coast Range of California's Central Coast along the Monterey County and San Benito County line. (ref. Arctostaphylos gabilanensis)
  • gabrielen'se/gabrielen'sis: of or from the San Gabriel Mountains. (ref. Arctostaphylos glandulosa ssp. gabrielensis, Hulsea parryi ssp. gabrielensis, Quercus durata var. gabrielensis)
  • Gaertner'ia: named for German botanist and botanical collector Joseph Gaertner (1732-1791). He was born in Calw
      in the south of Germany, and educated first in law in 1750 and then in medicine at Göttingen under Albrecht von Haller, Swiss anatomist, physiologist, naturalist, encyclopedist, bibliographer and poet. He got his medical degree in 1753. He was appointed professor of anatomy at Tübingen in 1760 and professor of botany and natural history in St. Petersburg in 1768. In 1770 he directed the botanical garden and natural history collections. He was elected a member of the Royal Society in 1761 and later a member of the Academy of Sciences of St. Petersburg. He was considered the
    founder of carpology, which is the study of hulls and seeds. He is the author of De fructibusetSeminibusPlantarum (1788-1791) which included 180 copper-plate engravings and introduced a new era in plant morphology. He also produced the work  Supplementumcarpologiae (1805-1807). He travelled extensively throughout Europe to visit other naturalists. His son was the physician and botanist Karl Friedrich von Gaertner who conducted some of the early experiments in hybridization of tobacco plants. The genus Gaertneria in the Asteraceae was published by Friedrich Kasimir Medikus in 1789 and the genus Gaertneria in the Gentianaceae was published by Nöel Martin Joseph de Necker in 1790. (ref. genus Gaertneria)
  • Gaillar'dia: after Antoine René Gaillard de Charentonneau (c.1720-c.1789), French magistrate, naturalist and patron of botany, member of the Académie Royale des Sciences. He received seeds of plants from the French colonies which he both cultivated himself and shared with other botanists. He was an officer of the courts from 1740 to 1771 and then again from 1774 to 1779. The genus Gaillardia was published in 1788 by French plant physiologist, archaeologist, and naturalist Auguste Denis Fougeroux de Bondaroy. He may have owned the castle of Charentonneau which had been acquired by a René Gaillard in 1671, and this may have been an ancestor. His father was also possibly named René (died 1744) and may be the René Gaillard who acquired the castle in 1671 and his grandfather was possibly named Pierre (died 1717), but there is very little information that I can confirm about him. One reference is to a "Rene Gaillard (1632-1709), lord of Monmiré and Charentonneau since 1671" and another to an Antoine Gaillard (1650-1716) who was possibly Pierre's brother. Another French source gives René Gaillard as buying the castle in 1671, then ownership passed to his brother Pierre (died 1717), Pierre's son René (died 1744) and finally to his son Antoine René, so the René Gaillard who bought the castle may have been the brother of Antoine René's grandfather. It was in the possession of the family until 1793 when it was seized by the government for some unexplained reason and later sold for the benefit of the nation. Antoine René was apparently alive at least as late as 1788. It's very difficult when you pretty much have only French websites to explore. (ref. genus Gaillardia)
  • gaillardio'ides: like genus Gaillardia. (ref. Layia gaillardioides)
  • gaird'neri: after Dr. Meredith Gairdner (1809-1837).  I don't know anything about his early years except that he was born in London and received his medical degree in Edinburgh, Scotland.  He studied science in Germany, and then left England for North America in 1832 and was employed by the Hudson's Bay Company on the Columbia River.  He was a natural historian interested in plants, birds and fishes, and his name was given to the steelhead trout, Salmo gairdneri.  He was constantly frustrated by the demands of his clerical work and his inability to spend more time on the things he loved.  He was plagued by tuberculosis and travelled with Thomas Nuttall to the Sandwich Islands sometime in the winter of 1835-1836.  He also witnessed eruptions of Mt. St. Helens in 1831 and 1835.  He became perhaps most famous (or infamous) for digging up the body of the Chinook Indian chief Comcomly and severing his head, which he eventually sent back to England for study.  He was interested in phrenology and the Chinook custom of head-flattening, and wanted to make some contribution to science before he died.  He had been sent to Fort Vancouver by the Hudson Bay Company in 1833 to help deal with an outbreak of smallpox, or what was referred to then as the 'cold sick', which had claimed the life of Comcomly and many others. Unfortunately, he came down with tuberculosis himself and died of that disease in Honolulu in 1837 at a very early age. (ref. Perideridia gairdneri)
  • galbin'um: greenish-yellow.
  • galeobdo'lon: said to be from the Greek galee, "weasel," and bdolon, "an unpleasant smell." (ref. Lamiastrum galeobdolon)
  • gale'ae: named for Nettie P. Prescott Dolan Gale (Mrs. Francis X. Dolan, Mrs. Isaac Alfred Gale) (1868-1957). She was born in Union Mills, Clackamas County, Oregon, and died in Portland. Leonard Wiley, author of Rare Wild Flowers of North America, referred to her as " my friend, Nettie Gale, one of Portland's outstanding authorities on our native flora." (ref. Brodiaea hendersonii var. galeae)
  • Galen'ia: named after Claudius Galenus (130-c.200/216), aka Galen, Galen of Pergamon, or Aelius Galenus, widely
      considered as the most prolific and influential of all medical writers of early antiquity and the greatest phsician of the Roman Empire. The city of Pergamon, sometimes written as Pergamum, which then was in the eastern Roman empire, is today in modern-day Turkey. At that time Pergamon was an important cultural locality with a highly active intellectual community and a library exceeded only by that of Alexandria. Galen was Greek and his father, Nicon, was a very prosperous architect and mathematician, and ensured that his son was educated in the classic
    Greek fields of geometry, philosophy, logic, and literature, but encouraged him to become a physician. He authored more books still in existence than any other of the ancient Greeks. He wrote more than 200 treatises, and his medical doctrines dominated the western and Arab worlds for close to 1500 years. He had great expertise in anatomy, surgery, pharmacology, and therapeutic methods. As a young man, because he had been left a good deal of money by his father, he traveled around the Mediterranean learning the latest techniques in medicine and healing. He spent almost five years studying at the medical school in the great city of Alexandria. After returning to Pergamon, he became physician to the gladiators of the Temple of Pergamon’s High Priest. According to Galen, his four years in this practice enabled him to learn even more about medicine. In 162 Galen went to Rome but conflict’s with Rome’s established phusicians who resented him led to his fleeing from the city in 166. He had however made his mark and in 169 he was summoned by Emperor Marcus Aurelius to be his personal physician. He continued as physician to Marcus Aurelius’ son Commodus who became emperor in 180 and remained with him until his murder in 192, following which he was physician to the new Emperor Septimius Severus. He was an extraordinary man who was an intellectually curious innovator in the field of medicine, but also a person who willingly credited the work of others such as Hippocrates, Herophilos, Celsus, Alcmaeon, Praxagoras, Herophilos, Erasistratus and Asclepiades, and much of what is known about them is thanks to Galen’s writings. He took their earlier work and compared it with his own experimental and practical findings. If he could confirm their work, he would use it; otherwise, he would criticize it, and say why it was wrong. It was not until the end of the dark ages and the beginning of the Renaissance in the 1500s and 1600s that flaws in Galen’s understanding of human anatomy and blood circulation led to a resurgence of medical thought. The website Credo Reference says: “Galen was the most prolific and influential of all medical writers of antiquity. The incomplete but indispensable standard edition by Carl Gottlob Kuhn comprises twenty volumes. Prolixity is no guarantor of ability or reputation, but Galen's claims to each rest not only on his immense output, but on the depth and scope of his writings. Galen composed more than 200 treatises, ranging from anatomical, physiological, pharmaceutical, prognostic, and therapeutic works, treatises on dietetics and plant medicine, Hippocratic commentaries, works devoted to attacking medical rivals such as Asklepiades of Bithynia and competing medical sects such as Empiricists and Methodists, texts on epistemology, language, logic, psychology, ethics, and moral philosophy, excurses on literary criticism, philology, and rhetoric (including an Attic dictionary in forty-eight volumes), and commentaries and compendia on Plato, Aristotle, Epicurus, and the Stoics. A number of these works are either lost or exist only in fragments. Some, such as the second half of Anatomical procedures, exist only in Arabic translation. Galen's extant works account for some 50 percent of his known output, and make up almost 11 percent of all surviving Greek literature to 350 CE (the largest percentage for any single author), and only 25 percent of Galen's work has been translated into a modern language.” The exact year of his death is uncertain, sometime between 200 and 216, but he probably died in Rome. The genus Galenia was published by Carl Linnaeus in 1753. (ref. genus Galenia)
  • Galeop'sis: from a Latin name used by Pliny for some nettle-like plant. The genus Galeopsis was published by Carl Linnaeus in 1753. (ref. genus Galeopsis)
  • galeottia'na: named for Henri Guillaume Galeotti (1814-1859), French-Belgian botanist and geologist of Italian parentage who was born in Paris and specialized in the cactus family. He moved to Brussels with his family at an early age and was passionate about the natural sciences. He graduated in 1835 from the Etablissement Géographique de Bruxelles where he studied geology and natural history and spent five years doing geological, paleontological and botanical research in Mexico, where he assembled the finest and most complete collection of Mexican orchids of its time. He collected and described numerous new species especially of the family Cactaceae and assembled a herbarium of 7000 species of plants. Back in Belgium he was offered a teaching position at the University of Brussels, which he rejected preferring to work at the nursery he established outside of Brussels to import and sell Mexican flora in Europe. In 1852 he became editor of the Journal d'Horticulture Pratique and the following year he was appointed as Director of the Jardin botanique de Bruxelles, a position he held until his death. In 1857 he created the Bulletin de la Société Royale d’Horticulture de Belgique et du Jardin botanique de Bruxelles, and then died in 1859 of tuberculosis. His personal herbarium was purchased by the Botanical Garden of Brussels. (ref. Plantago hirtella ssp. galeottiana)
  • galericula'ta: with a small cap or hat, from the Latin galea, "a helmet." (ref. Scutellaria galericulata)
  • Galinso'ga: after Mariano Martinez de Galinsoga (1766-1797), Spanish doctor in Madrid, at one time physician to the Queen consort Maria Luisa of Parma of Spain,  Superintendent of the Royal Botanical Garden of Madrid , and member of the Spanish Royal National Academy of Medicine which he may have helped to establish. Galinsoga wrote a 1784 book Demostración mecánica de las enfermedades que produce el uso de las cotillas about the health hazards of the wearing corsets, and pointed out the absence of such health problems among peasant women who did not wear them. His father was ambassador to Hungary and Viscount of Royal Grace. His brother Luis was Director of the Barcelona newspaper La Vanguardia Española. The genus Galinsoga was published in 1794 by the Spanish botanists Hipólito Ruiz López and José Antonio Pavon. (ref. genus Galinsoga)
  • galio'ides: resembling the genus Galium. (ref. Kelloggia galioides)
  • Ga'lium: from the Greek word gala, "milk," and alluding to the fact that certain species were used to curdle milk. The genus Galium was published by Carl Linnaeus in 1753. (ref. genus Galium)
  • Galliar'ia: named for Bernardino Galliari (1707-1794), Italian painter, scenic designer and decorator of theaters. He was born at Andorno in the Province of Biella in the Piedmont. Together with his brothers Fabrizio and Giovanni Antonio, he was one of the founders of the pictorial workshop that bore their name - that of the Galliari brothers - active in the eighteenth century in the field of painting and baroque style in use at the time in major European theaters, palaces and villas. He was sought after not only in Italy but also in Germany and France. His father, Giovanni, two brothers, and three nephews all became painters. His nephew Gian Antonio Galliari was a still-life painter of flowers. After Bernardino arrived in Milan, he set up with his brothers in nearby Treviglio. They were active in Lombardy and Veneto, and also in the Piedmont, in French Savoy, in Paris, in Berlin and in Vienna. As the principle among the Galliari brothers, Bernardino was most influential in particular in relations with clients. In particular, he was able to have frequent encounters with very powerful personalities, including Frederick II of Prussia, of whom he became a confidant. The genus Galliaria was published by Pietro Bubani in 1897. (ref. genus Galliari)
  • gal'lica/gal'licum: of or from or referring to France. (ref. Logfia gallica, Silene gallica, Tamarix gallica, Erucastrum gallicum)
  • galpin'ii/gal'pinii: after the South African botanist and banker Ernest Edward Galpin (1858-1941). The following
      is quoted from Wikipedia: "One of seven sons born in Grahamstown to Henry Carter Galpin, watchmaker and jeweller, and Georgina Maria Luck, Ernest Galpin started his education at the local St. Andrews School. Due to his father's ill-health, Ernest left school at 14 to assist with the business. A short spell of active service on the frontier followed, after which he joined the Oriental Banking Corporation, later the Bank of Africa. After being transferred to Middelburg in the Cape, he developed an interest in the local plants and spent long hours dissecting and identifying wild
    flowers with the aid of the three volumes of Flora Capensis and Harvey's Genera. However, it was not till 1888 when he became bank manager in Grahamstown, that his collecting took on a serious turn. In 1889 he was transferred to Barberton and became intrigued by the relatively unknown local flora. His specimens now started reflecting his meticulous nature in that they were carefully pressed, preserved and labelled with extensive notes on locality, habitat and plant form. His duplicates soon found their way to Kew, Zurich and a number of notable botanists such as Harry Bolus, Medley Wood and Peter MacOwan. Not surprisingly his collection became internationally known. In Barberton he befriended a young lawyer and plant collector Douglas Gilfillan, later to become his brother-in-law through their marriage to the de Jongh sisters. Galpin had had some new plant discoveries painted by Marie Elizabeth de Jongh (the daughter of Countess Mimi von Schönnberg) and married her in 1892. She shared his love of the outdoor life and accompanied him on many of his excursions and expeditions. In 1892 Galpin was transferred to Queenstown, where he was to remain until his retirement in 1917. By now his herbarium specimens had grown to about 1500 in number. He made extensive collecting trips to mountains in the Eastern Cape, including Great Winterberg, Katberg, Stormberg and Andriesberg. In 1904 his wife accompanied him on a trip to the Basutoland border where they collected around Ben MacDhui and Satsannasberg. In 1897 he set out on a trip from Port Elizabeth to Humansdorp, Knysna, George, Riversdale, Swellendam and Caledon districts, ending in Cape Town. Here he spent some time at the Bolus Herbarium. In 1905 he visited Rhodesia with the British Association, collecting at the Victoria Falls and the Matopos. In 1907, in the company of Prof. H.H.W. Pearson, he undertook a trip to South West Africa to study Welwitschia, making stops at Port Nolloth, Lüderitz Bay, Swakopmund, Welwitsch Station and following the Swakop River to Haikamkab. In 1910 he and his wife departed Lourenço Marques for Kenya and Uganda, collecting in the Aberdare Mountains and returning with a new species of tree Lobelia. From 1913 on he added few specimens to his collection, which even so numbered about 16,000 by 1916 when he donated the entire collection to the National Herbarium in Pretoria. In 1917 he retired to his farm Mosdene on the Springbok Flats near Naboomspruit north of Pretoria. Here he became inspired to start collecting again. Following the lead of Dr. I.B. Pole Evans, he started an intensive botanical study of the countryside surrounding his farm. Despite failing eyesight, he was taught to drive by his son, and together they set out on a trip through the Transkei and the Eastern Cape. His wife suffered a fatal heart attack in Durban in 1933 while he was on an expedition in the mountains of the eastern Transvaal. He was a life member of the Linnean Society and joined the S. Afr. Assoc. for the Adv. of Science a year after its founding. Vol. 13 of Flowering Plants of South Africa was dedicated to him, and the University of South Africa conferred an honorary doctorate on him." (ref. Bauhinia galpinii)
  • Galve'zia: after José Bernardo de Gálvez y Gallardo (1720-1787), Marquis del la Sonora, a Spanish colonial
      administrator. The following is quoted from the Encyclopedia Britannica: "He was noted for his work as inspector general in New Spain (Mexico) in 1765–71, where he reorganized the tax system, formed a government tobacco monopoly, and occupied Upper California. As minister of the Indies (America) from 1775, he worked to expand commerce. He devised the intendancy system that was introduced in 1786. Gálvez is considered Spain's greatest colonial administrator." He was born in Málaga, Spain and after being a shepherd he gravitated toward the seminary to
    become a priest. This however was not to be his calling and he completed a degree in law at the University of Alcalá and became a successful attorney. He came to the attention of some of the King Charles III’s ministers and thanks to a royally-connected wife, he worked as legal adviser at the French embassy in Madrid. He was chosen as personal secretary to Jerónimo Grimaldi, minister to the newly ascended king and then became attorney to prince Carlos, the future king Carlos IV. In 1765 he was appointed as Visitador generál (Inspector general) of New Spain where he was in charge of public finances and reform issues, including overhauling revenue collection, strengthening crown monopolies, and expelling the Jesuits from the viceroyalty. He also initiated the permanent settlement of Alta California, arranging for Franciscans to take over mangement of the missions that had been controlled by the Jesuits.  He used the rumored threat of British, Dutch and Russian colonization of the California coast to move more forcefully into Alta (Upper) California. His next move was to appoint Dominican friars to positions of authority over the Baja missions and assigned Father Junípero Serra to head the missionary team in the Alta California expedition. He established a naval base at San Blas north of Puerto Vallarta and extended his influence well north in California, issuing further instructions to build proper fortifications at Monterey, reconnoiter the ports of Monterey and San Francisco, and prepare detailed accounts destined for top officials in Mexico and Spain. He establsihed missions at Monterey and Carmel. Unfortunately for Galvez, the Spanish occupation of Alta California would prove to be more of a drain than a source of revenue. He returned to Spain in 1772 as an honorary member of the Council of the Indies and performed special services for the king. In 1776 he assumed the prestigious post of Minister of the Indies, from which he could direct the Bourbon reforms that affected the Spanish Empire from Argentina to Texas. He was zealous to more effectively organize the overseas administration to expand areas of settlement and stimulate the economy. As Minister of the Indies he was able to secure the appointment of his brother Matías as Governor-captain general of Guatemala. Matías went on to serve as viceroy of New Spain. The genus Galvezia was published in 1794 by the Spanish botanists Hipólito Ruiz López and José Antonio Pavon. (ref. genus Galvezia)
  • Gambel'ia/gambelia'nus/gambel'ii: after William Gambel (1823-1849), an Assistant curator at the Philadelphia Academy of Natural Science and an avid western plant collector who died at the early age of either 26. He was born in Philadelphia to an educated Irish family and not much is know about his earliest years, except that his father died when he was nine.  His mother took to teaching to support the family. William was drawn toward the study of nature and came into contact with and began working for Thomas Nuttall who was engaged in writing up his botanical findings from the Pacific Coast. He trained and travelled with Nuttall on a collecting trip to North Carolina and to New England as far north as Maine. In 1841 he embarked on his own on a collecting trip for Nuttall and travelled to St. Louis and Independence, Missouri, and then along the Santa Fe and Old Spanish Trails. He collected the type specimen of Quercus gambelii near Santa fe in New Mexico in 1841. 1842 was spent mostly collecting along the California coast and then running short of funds was hired by the Navy as a secretary and spent the next several years sailing on a number of ships and collecting along the Pacific coasts of both North and South America and also visiting the Sandwich Islands. He arrived back in Philadelphia in 1845, where his discoveries of several birds new to science had brought him to the attention of some of the leading scientists of the day, even meeting John J. Audubon. Much of his material was incorporated into a book about the birds of California by John Cassin, and he drew plates for Nuttall’s book on trees. He decided to become a doctor and studied medicine at the University of Pennsylvania, gaining his degree in 1848. His plan was to set up a medical practice in California and travelled overland in 1849. It was fairly late in the year by the time they got to the Sierras and most of his companions died. He was one of the few who made it through but while helping some sick gold miners he contracted typhoid himself and died. He was a significant naturalist and undoubtedly would have had a bright future as ornithologist and botanist. He is remembered best perhaps because of Gambel’s oak and Gambel’s quail. He also collected on Santa Catalina Island. The genus Gambelia was named for him in 1847 by Nuttall. (ref. genus Gambelia, Astragalus gambelianus, Cardamine gambelii, Quercus gambelii, Rorippa gambelii)
  • Gamochae'ta: from the Greek gamos, "marriage, stigma, female part," and chaite, "bristle, mane, long hair," thus meaning "united bristle" in reference to the pappus bristles. The genus Gamochaeta was published in 1855 by Hugh Algernon Weddell. (ref. genus Gamochaeta)
  • gan'deri: named after Frank Forest Gander (1899-1976), botanist and zoologist in San Diego, California, and Curator of Botany at the San Diego Museum of Natural History 1934-1939. He originally studied mammals and birds of the local area but switched his focus to botany. He conducted systematic plant collections of San Diego County and compiled the most complete list of its plants to that time which formed the basis of Ethel Bailey Higgins Annotated Distributional List of the ferns and flowering of San Diego County (1949). (ref. Cryptantha ganderi, Cylindropuntia ganderi, Lepechinia ganderi, Senecio ganderi)
  • gan'kinii: named for Roman W. Gankin (1931- ), horticulturist and botanist. He was born in Oakland, California, and grew up in Menlo Park where his interest in botany was stimulated by his mother. He got a Bachelor's degree in botany and genetics from UC Berkeley. In the 1960's he was on the staff of the UC Davis Arboretum. In the 1970's he was Senior Environmental Planner, Environmental Management Department, Planning Division, San Mateo County. He was the author of several Arctostaphylos taxa, and also author of The Variation Pattern and Ecological Restrictions of Arctostaphylos Myrtifolia Parry. (ref. Arctostaphylos patula ssp. gankinii)
  • gar'beri: after American physician and botanist Dr. Abraham Paschal Garber (1838-1881) some of whose collections are at the University of Florida Herbarium. Despite a life that was cut short by consumption, Dr. Garber accomplished a lot. He grew up in a house that was saturated with botany on a farm that was appropriately enough called Floral Retreat. His father had built a greenhouse said to be the first in Pennsylvania west of Philadelphia. His father was also an editor/author of note on horticultural subjects with many published articles to his credit. He began his education in 1856 at a normal school that had been established only a few miles from his home, graduating in 1865. A normal school is a school for the training of teachers, and during this time he did teach at public schools and even became a principal. During this time also he spent a brief time in the military after joining the 195th Pennsylvania Volunteers with whom he saw service in West Virginia, Maryland and Pennsylvania. Following the war, he entered the junior class of Lafayette College, graduating in 1868 and becoming an Assistant in Natural History until 1870. He conducted numerous and extensive botanical explorations, amassing a significant collection for the herbarium at Lafayette. His interest in botany led him along a path toward medicine which actually began at Lafayette College and continued at the School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania, graduating in 1872. Little did he know then that he had but nine years of life remaining to him. He became Assistant Resident Physician in the Harrisburg State Lunatic Hospital in charge of some 200 patients and continued there until poor health forced him to resign in 1875. He tried to set up his own doctor's office but the climate of Pennsylvania was not amenable and he sought relief by spending time in Florida. The flora of that part of the country was little known and Dr. Garber worked diligently to rectify that, again collecting a great number of specimens of interest and distributing many thousands of specimens to herbaria both in the United States and Europe. He made one trip to the West Indies at the suggestion of a Danish botanist, Baron Eggers, and added many specimens to his collection. He also made a trip to Puerto Rico in the early part of 1881 and made a small collection there. It was not long after he returned to Lancaster County in Pennsylvania in June of that year that his condition worsened and he died. He was a most respected and beloved individual who no doubt could have accomplished a great deal more had he been blessed with better health, but nevertheless left his mark on the field of botany. An odd note on a Find-a-Grave website says: "The cemetery in which he supposedly lies has been reported as a plowed field, so the whereabouts of his remains are a mystery." (ref. Carex garberi)
  • gard'neri: named for James Terry Gardner (Gardiner) (1842-1912), surveyor, engineer, public health pioneer, son-in-
      law of Bishop William Croswell Doane, and author of Notes on the Rocky Mountain Ranges of Colorado Territory (1875). His family name was originally Gardiner, but his father discontinued the use of the ‘i.’ James Terry resumed its use halfway through his life. He was born in Troy, New York, and briefly attended the Sheffield Scientific School in New Haven, Connecticut, and Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. In 1863 he travelled on horseback with his boyhood friend the geologist Clarence King to San Francisco, where he entered the service of the United States
    Army Corps of Engineers as a civilian assistant working on the construction of fortifications along the coast. The following year he joined the California Division of Mines and Geology under Josiah Whitney. King was already working there as a geologist and together they participated in the first scientific survey of the high country of the Sierra Nevada and Yosemite region under the leadership of William Brewer. He stayed with the Survey for several years and explored much of California. In 1867 Gardiner joined the Fortieth Parallel Survey, led by King, and then joined the Hayden Survey in 1872 serving as chief topographer until 1876. He became involved in the mining industry, writing a report on coal and iron in Colorado in 1875. Thereafter, Gardiner returned to New York where he was appointed director of the New York State Survey. In 1879 Frederick Law Olmsted, who had known Gardner for some years, and he were asked to inspect Niagara Falls and prepare a report. From 1880 to 1886 he was also a member of the state board of health and was instrumental in establishing proper sewage systems throughout the state. He became president of the Mexican Coke and Coal Company in 1899. He helped establish the community of Northeast Harbor on Cadillac Island in Maine, built a large summer home there in 1883 which he named Ye Haven and which still stands today. He started a water company, and engineered roads and public utilities. It is appropriate that Gardner and King are honored by the Sierra peaks only two miles apart. Mt. Gardiner, located in the center of Sequoia-Kings Canyon National Park, is one of the 33 designated ‘Mountaineer Peaks’ in the Sierra Nevada. It is the highest peak within the area bounded by the 50-mile Rae Lakes Loop, one of the most popular backpacking routes there. Mt. Gardiner is overshadowed by the more popular and technically more difficult Mt. Clarence King that lies to the northeast. He died in Northeast Harbor. (ref. Ptychomitrium gardneri) (Photo credit: Geni)
  • gard'neri: named for Alexander Gordon (c.1795-?) who collected the type specimen along the Platte River in Nebraska in 1843, and then given the name gardneri because the author, Christian Horace Benedict Alfred Moquin-Tandon, misread the specimen label (See gordonii). (ref. Atriplex gardneri)
  • gar'rettii: after Utah botanist and mycologist Albert Osbun Garrett (1870-1948), author of Spring Flora of the Wasatch Region, Some Introduced Plants of Salt Lake County, Utah, Fungi Utahensis, and The Uredinales or Rusts of Utah. In 1911 he undertook an exploration of southeast Utah with Per Axel Rydberg. (ref. Epilobium canum ssp. garrettii)
  • Gar'rya/garrya'na: named for Nicholas Garry (c.1782-1856) of the Hudson's Bay Company who was an associate of David
      Douglas in his explorations of the Pacific Northwest. He was helpful to Douglas when he was in western North America in 1826 looking for native plants suitable for horticultural introduction in Great Britain, and it was Douglas who honored Garry with the published generic name Garrya in 1834. Garry's mother was named Isabella Garry and his father, Nicholas Langley, died when he was about 1. The boy was raised by Langley’s brother Thomas where he learned to speak German, French and Russian fluently. At some point he was involved in a business which was engaged in
    trade between England and Russia. Thomas Langley had been appointed a director of the Hudson’s Bay Company in 1807, and in 1817 Nicholas joined him as a director. At this time there were negotiations underway to merge the Hudson’s Bay Company and the North West Company. It was decided that a representative from each company should meet with the wintering partners at Fort William in Ontario to explain the new trade arrangements and obtain the partners’ concurrence, and Nicholas Garry volunteered. He left London in 1821and although at first reluctant to go along with the proposal the partners eventually agreed. The new company was divided into a Northern Department and a Southern Department, and before leaving to return to England he placed George Simpson and William Williams as Governors of the two departments. Beginning in 1822 Garry became the Deputy Governor of the Hudson’s Bay Company and remained in this position until he suffered a mental breakdown, was declared of unsound mind and was removed, dying in 1856 never having recovered his sanity. He had been considered a tactful, shrewd and humane diplomat who had handled the business affairs of the company very satisfactorily. (ref. genus Garrya, Quercus garryana var. breweri) (Photo credit: Archives of Manitoba)
  • Gastrid'ium: Umberto Quattrocchi gives the following: "Diminutive of the Greek gaster, 'abdomen, belly, paunch,' referring to the base of the spikelets, swollen." The genus Gastridium was published by Ambroise Palisot de Beauvois in 1812. (ref. genus Gastridium)
  • gaten'se: from the type locality, Los Gatos Creek northwest of Coalinga in western Fresno County, an area made famous to folk music fans because of Woody Guthrie's poem about the "Plane Wreck at Los Gatos (Deportees)." (ref. Galium andrewsii ssp. gatense)
  • Gaudin'ia: named for Swiss botanist Jean Francois Aimé Philippe Gaudin (1766-1833), a clergyman and
      professor of botany at Lausanne. He was born at Longirod in the district of Nyon, canton of Vaud, and attended Geneva Academy, then studied theology at the University of Zurich. While there he was influenced in the direction of botany by the naturalist Johannes Gessner who was a friend of the founder of the Botanical Garden of Zurich. He was co-director and then director of the renowned Snell Institute in Nyon which Gay attended as his pupil and protégé and was taught by Gaudin how to collect and classify plants. In 1811 he published a description of grasses entitled
    Agrostologia helvetica and in 1820 was admitted to the Linnean Society of Paris and became an honorary professor of botany at the University of Lausanne. The first six volumes of his master work Flora Helvetica were published between 1828 and 1830, followed in 1833 by a geographical dictionary of all the places mentioned previously called Topographia helvetica. He compiled a herbarium of around 5500 specimens of some 3500 species which he bequeathed to his friend Jacques Étienne Gay. He was a founding member in 1815, with Henri-Albert Gosse, of the Swiss Society of Natural Sciences, and also the first president of the Evangelical Mission Society in Nyon in 1826. Jean Gaudin successively occupied the ecclesiastical office of pastor at the German church of Nyon, Longirod (1817-1821), then Nyon (1821-1833). The genus Gaudinia was published by Gay in 1829. (ref. genus Gaudinia)
  • Gaulther'ia: after Jean François Gaulthier (1708-1756), French-Canadian botanist of Quebec, appointed King's physician for Quebec in 1741. His name is variously spelled as Gautier, Gauthier, Gaulthier or Gaultier. He was born in Normandy and little is known of his early childhood and youth but he studied and practiced medicine in Paris for a number of years. After the position of King’s physician in Quebec City had been vacant for several years, Gaulthier was appointed to it and he sailed for New France in 1742. He was also appointed physician of the teaching hospital Hôtel-Dieu de Québec and the seminary. He knew the botanists Antoine de Jussieu and Bernard de Jussieu who gave him a copy of s book entitled "History of the Plants of Canada" which he carried with him. In May 1745, he was elected Henri-Louis Duhamel du Monceau 's foreign correspondent for the Royal Academy of Sciences for subjects such as meteorology , arboriculture, and agriculture. He established the first Canadian meteorological station at Quebec in November 1742. Gaultier was hospitalized in July 1756 for typhus and died that year. The disease was brought on the ship The Leopard , one of the squadron ships that brought Governor Louis-Joseph de Montcalm to Canada and affected about 1,000 people . He was not replaced because a first designated successor, Mr. Chomel, died before crossing, while a second, Mr. Lebeau, was prevented from coming to Canada because of the raging Seven Years' War. My translation of French Wikipedia says: “It was botany that, after meteorology, absorbed the bulk of his intellectual effort. Popular medicine, botanical pharmacopoeias and the use of woods hold his attention. He helped to popularize several crops, pharmaceuticals and others, and the so-called 'tea of ​​the woods' (Gaultheria procumbens). He compiled Canadian botanical vocabularies and prepared several treatises on maple sugar and the manufacture of pitch and resin which were published. Duhamel du Monceau published about 115 pages of Gaulthier's works. In 1752, Gaulthier sent samples of minerals to minerologist Jean-Étienne Guettard, which allowed him to develop an overall theory on the distribution of minerals and the structure of continents, a theory he had already applied in studies on Egypt, France, and Switzerland . Thanks to Gaulthier, Guettard extended his theory to North America. Creating a network of local correspondents, Gaulthier made several shipments of preserved animals to the French naturalist René-Antoine Ferchault Réaumur, birds, fish and mammals especially, some of which were accompanied by descriptions of the habits of those animals. He was credited with "excellent work in entomology." The genus Gaultheria was published in 1753 by Carl Linnaeus based on an earlier description by the Finnish botanist and explorer Pehr Kalm. (ref. genus Gaultheria)
  • Gau'ra: from the Greek gauros, "proud," from the showy flowers of some sspp. Carl Linnaeus published the genus in 1753. (ref. genus Gaura)
  • gayan'a: after Jacques Etienne Gay (1786-1864), Swiss-born botanist, plant collector, taxonomist and civil servant
      who moved to Paris in 1811 and was appointed to the office of the Senate. He was appointed Secretary to the Comité des Pétitions. He carried out extensive research in descriptive botany, and was instrumental in the foundation of the Société Botanique de France, 1854 (information from the Darwin Correspondence Online Database). He began collecting plants at the age of fourteen with botanist Jean François Aimée Gaudin. The following is from JSTOR: “Jacques Gay produced many taxonomic works spanning a range of plant families, and collected a great deal of
    herbarium specimens from western Europe. Born in Nyon he studied in the renowned Snell Institute. Progressing rapidly he took an interest in botany and soon became associated with J.F.A. Gaudin. Gay began to explore the flora of the Swiss Alps from a young age under the patronage of Gaudin, a renowned botanist then involved with the direction of the Snell Institute, who guided the youngster and taught him to collect and classify plants. In this way Gay contributed to Gaudin's Flora Helvetica which would be published between 1828 and 1833 in seven volumes. In 1811 Gay found himself in Paris and was soon taken in by C.L. Huguet, marquis de Sémonville, who gave him a job in his office working for the senate. Several years later, at the Restoration, Huguet named him Secretary for the Committee of Petitions of the restored Chambre des Pairs (the Peerage of France), and he worked there until it was definitively abolished in 1848. As a botanist Gay thrived in Paris, meeting many prestigious botanists of the time and, while still a follower of the school of Linnaeus, he was introduced to the natural system which opened his mind to many new ideas. In 1818 Gay published his first botanical work, a description of several grass genera, and the following two years were spent occupied by the genus Crocus. From this time until 1854 he studied a number of taxa including the Caryophyllales and the families Brassicaceae, Fumariaceae, Resedaceae, Liliaceae, Cyperaceae and Asteraceae. Writing monographs for many genera, he produced an important treatment in 1821 which covered five genera of the Byttneriaceae family, a family he spent much time studying. Gay also produced some work on the topic of phytogeography and, as a dedication to the two patrons of his youth, he named the genera Semonvillea J. Gay and Gaudinia in 1829, the latter of which has not remained as it was already in use by P. de Beauvois. In 1824 he received the declaration of the Legion of Honour and he married Rosalie Nillion in 1826.” He had a genus Gaya named in his honor in 1828 by Gaudin. (ref. Chloris gayana)
  • gaya'num: see Gayophytum. (ref. Delphinium gayanum)
  • gaylussac'ia: after French chemist and physicist Joseph-Louis Gay-Lussac (1778-1850). After studying at the École
      Polytechnique and the École Nationale des Ponts et Chaussées (School of Bridges and Highways), and then becoming a research assistant to chemist Claude-Louis Berthollet, his first publication was on the thermal expansion of gases. He established that hydrogen and oxygen combine in a ratio of 2:1 to form water, and then identified a class of substances later called carbohydrates which contained hydrogen and oxygen in that ratio. He was a joint editor of Annales de chimie et de physique, held several teaching posts, and in 1818 he became a member of a government
    gunpowder commission In 1829 he was appointed as the Director of the Assay Department at the Paris Mint where he created a new and accurate method for assaying silver. He worked on methods for determining the strength of alcoholic liquids and was a consultant to a glass factory. In 1839 he was elected to the French Chamber of Deputies. He was the co-discoverer of boron and identified iodine as a new element. (ref. Crataegus gaylussacia)
  • Gayophy'tum: after naturalist Claude Gay (1800-1873), French author of Flora of Chile, who went to Chile in
      1828 to study the flora of South America, eventually amassing an herbarium of some 4000 specimens. His interests went far beyond botany however, and he conducted a general scientific survey of Chile including detailed astronomical observations. He also travelled in Peru and Brazil. His great work, Historia Fisica y Political de Chile, was published over the period 1843 to 1851, in 24 volumes. In 1856 he was elected a member in the botanical section of the French Academy of Sciences, and in 1858 went to the United States to study its mining system. The genus
    Gayophytum was published by Adrien Henri Laurent de Jussieu in 1832. (ref. genus Gayophytum)
  • Gazan'ia: named for Theodorus Gaza (1398-1478), Greek-born Italian scholar, humanist and translator of the
      works of Theophrastus and Aristotle from Greek into Latin. He was born into an illustrious family in Thessalonika, Macedonia. The city was under Turkish rule at the time, was returned to Byzantine authority in 1403, and then finally captured again by the Turks in 1430 when Theodorus, like many learned Greeks and not wanting to submit to Turkish rule, escaped to Italy. Not much is known of his life prior to this, but in Italy he came under the influence of Vittorino da Feltre who presided over the celebrated humanist school La Giocosa, acquired a good knowledge
    of Latin, studied medicine, and supported himself by giving Greek lessons. By 1447 his fame had spread widely and he was chosen as a professor of Greek at the University of Ferrara to which students flocked from all over Italy. He went to Rome in 1450 at the invitation of Pope Nicholas V and for a number of years worked translating into Latin the works of Aristotle and other classical writers like Alexander of Aphrodisias, Aelian, Theophrastus, Dionysius of Helicarnassus and Cicero. When Pope Nicholas died in 1455 he moved to Naples and worked under King Alphonso the Magnanimous and then upon his death was awarded a benefice in Calabria (a financial arrangement that served as a reward for past services and a retainer for future services) by Cardinal Bessarion in Rome, the titular Latin Patriarch of Constantinople and a renowned Greek scholar in his own right. Theodorus also wrote a widely regarded Greek grammar which was published in Venice in 1495 and served for years as a major textbook. Joseph Gaertner published the genus in 1791. (ref. genus Gazania)
  • geisia'na: named for Helen Dudu Geis (1873-1955), American botanist and early Sierra Club member. She was born in Plainsburg, California and died in Orange. She graduated from the Cal. State Normal School in San Jose, a teaching institution which eventually evolved into San Jose State University. She received an A.B. degree in German and botany from Stanford in 1902 and became a high school teacher. Her father was Silas Wright Geis. (ref. Lappula floribunda var. geisiana)
  • geissea'na: named for Wilhelm Geisse (Guillermo Geisse Ulrich) (1846-1925), plant collector in Chile and died there. (ref. Crepis geisseana)
  • gemel'lum: from the Latin gemellus, "a twin, one born at the same time," from the paired heads. (ref. Trifolium gemellum)
  • gemma'ta: jeweled. (ref. Cardamine nuttallii var. gemmata)
  • -gena: a suffix that often indicates an origin from a particular area or an affinity for a particular area, e.g. nubigena, "born among the clouds," alpigena, "alpine," glaciogena, "from glaciated areas."
  • genicula'ta/genicula'tus: jointed, bent like a knee at a node. (ref. Brassica geniculata, Eleocharis geniculata, Alopecurus geniculatus)
  • Genis'ta: a Latin name from which the Plantagenet kings and queens of England took their name, planta genesta or plante genest. The plant was the common broom flower, called planta genista in Latin. It was Geoffrey of Anjou who was nicknamed the Plantagenet because he carried a yellow-flowered sprig of broom on his helmet as a badge (genêt is the French name of the broom shrub), and it was his son, Henry II, who became the first Plantagenet king. Other historical explanations are that Geoffrey planted this shrub as a hunting cover or that he used the broom to scourge himself. It was not until Richard, Duke of York, father of both kings Edward IV and Richard III, that members of this family adopted the name Plantagenet, and it was then retroactively applied to the descendents of Geoffrey of Anjou as the dynastic name. The genus Genista was published in 1753 by Carl Linnaeus. (ref. genus Genista)
  • genistifo'lia: with leaves like genus Genista. (ref. Linaria genistifolia)
  • Gentia'na: named after Gentius, last King of Illyria, a kingdom near what is now Montenegro, and a royal member of the Illyrian tribe of the Ardiaei, who in the 2nd century B.C. found the roots of the herb yellow gentian or bitterwort to have a healing effect on his malaria-stricken troops. Little seems to be known about his early life, but according to the Roman historian Livy he had a brother, Plator. and a half-brother. He succeeded his father Pleuratus III who had remained loyal to Roman rule, but he led a resistance that came to be known as the Third Illyrian War in 167-168 BC. In 171 BC he was allied with the Romans against the Macedonians, but in 169 he changed sides. In that same year he apparently arranged the murder of his brother Plator and then married his (Plator’s) fiancee. The war against Roman authority ended badly and Gentius, his queen, his half-brother, and his sons were all taken into custody. The year of his death is not known for certain. The genus Gentiana was published by Carl Linnaeus in 1753. The names of the genera Genetianella and Gentianopsis while not specifically in honor of him are nevertheless derived from Gentiana and thus indirectly from his name.(ref. genus Gentiana)
  • Gentianel'la: "little Gentian," reflecting its having been split off from the genus Gentiana because while very similar was of different enough character and measurements to warrant its own genus. The genus Gentianella was published in 1794 by Conrad Moench. (ref. genus Gentianella)
  • Gentianop'sis: resembling or having the form of Gentian. Yu Chuan Ma published the genus in 1951. (ref. genus Gentianopsis)
  • gen'tilis: from the Latin gentilis, "family, hereditary, related." (ref. Aristida ternipes var. gentilis)
  • gent'neri: after Louis Gustave Gentner (1892-1980). The following is quoted from a website of the Oregon State University Library: "Louis G. Gentner, was born in Portland, Oregon, in February 1892. Gentner received his B.S. from Oregon Agricultural College in 1915, his M.S. from the University of Wisconsin in 1918, and completed his doctorate at Oregon State College in 1953. He did his post-graduate work at Oregon State College in 1945 and 1946. After working as an entomologist in Wisconsin and Michigan, he became associate entomologist and assistant superintendent of the Southern Oregon Branch Experiment Station in Medford in 1930. Gentner's studies with alfalfa varieties led to the selection and naming of "Talent" alfalfa, now grown extensively for seed production exports. His work with beetles led to the elimination of the Klamath goat weed infestation on southern Oregon infested rangeland and enabling thousands of acres to be become viable again. Gentner retired from the station in 1962 and died July 16, 1980." (ref. Fritillaria gentneri)
  • gent'ryi: named for Howard Scott Gentry (1903-1993), economic botanist, president of the Society of Economic
      Botany, and the world’s leading authority on the agaves. He was born in Temecula, California, and when he was six moved with his family to the Imperial Valley where his father managed a dairy farm and grew melons and other produce. As a teenager he acted as a guide for duck hunters around the Salton Sea and explored the nearby mountains. After a freshman year at Oregon State College,he transferred to UC Berkeley where one of his professors was Joseph Grinnell and from which he received a bachelor’s degree in vertebrate zoology in 1931. He also received a Ph.D. in
    botany from the University of Michigan in 1947. He made his first field trip to the Sierra Madre Occidental in Mexico and spent most of the following twenty years exploring, collecting and recording the plant life of northwestern Mexico. From 1950 to 1971 he worked for the U.S. Department of Agriculture and made botanical trips to Europe, India and Africa. After 1971 he was a research botanist with the Desert Botanical Garden in Phoenix and collected many of the specimens that are now at the Huntington Botanical Garden in San Marino. He was also interested in ethnobotany. An article about him by Isabel Shipley Cunningham in the journal Economic Botany says: “Gentry’s keen eye for plant variation, detailed observation of the ecological environment of the plants he collected, and his rare ability to interpret the genetic diversity of wild species are distinguishing characteristics of his work. He was an authority on the centers of origin of cultivated crops. His meticulous scholarship is reflected in the seventy publications he wrote or co-authored. His colleagues remember a painstaking collector who was also an entertaining companion and an unassuming, generous, and loyal friend. Despite hardships, danger, and advancing age, he pursued his search for useful plants and his quest for knowledge. He strengthened agricultural ties between the United States and Mexico  and inspired many fellow scientists, especially younger botanists whom he encouraged.” His major works were Río Mayo Plants of Sonora-Chihuahua, The Agave Family of Sonora, and The Agaves of Baja California. He is buried in Murrieta, California. (ref. Agropyron gentryi) (Photo credit: Economic Botany, Vol. 48, No. 4, 1994)
  • genuflex'a: presumably from the root words genu, "knee, joint, knot," and flex from Latin flexus, "bent, turned, curved." (ref. Angelica genuflexa)
  • -gera: a suffix denoting "bearing or carrying" (e.g. setigera, scapigera).
  • Gerae'a: from the Greek geraios for old, for the white-haired involucre. The genus Geraea was published in 1846 by John Torrey and Asa Gray. (ref. genus Geraea)
  • Geran'ium: from the Greek geranos, "crane," from the beak-like fruit. The genus Geranium was published in 1753 by Carl Linnaeus. (ref. genus Geranium)
  • Gerard'ia: named for John Gerard (1545-1612), English botanist with a large herbal garden in London and author
      of the 1,484-pages illustrated Herball, or Generall Historie of Plantes (1597) which became the most prevalent botany book in English in the 17th century. His work was largely an unacknow- ledged (if not plagiarized) English translation of Rembert Dodoens's herbal, published in 1554. He was born at Nantwich, Cheshire, and received his only schooling at nearby Willaston. Little else appears to be known about his early life, parentage or additional schooling, but about the age of 17 he became a barber-surgeon apprentice to Alexander Mason of the Company of Barbers and
    Surgeons in London. In 1569 he was permitted to open his own practice, and at some time in his later youth, he is said to have made a single trip abroad, possibly as a ship's surgeon on a merchant ship sailing around the North Sea and Baltic, for he refers to both Scandinavia and Russia in his writings. He lived his entire adult life in London and had a successful career with the Barber–Surgeons' Company. He developed the tenement garden in Holborn and published a popular list of the plants there. In 1577 he began work as superintendent at the gardens of William Cecil (the Queen's Lord High Treasurer) and in 1586, the College of Physicians established a physic garden with him as curator, a position he held until 1604. He became associated with many people of nobility who had beautiful gardens, and no doubt plants and seeds were exchanged widely, and apprently impressed Queen Elizabeth and Anne, the Queen Consort to King James I. In 1596, Gerard published his Catalogue which wasa list of rare plants (1,039 different kinds) he cultivated in his own garden at Holborn, where he introduced exotic plants from the New World, and was the first catalogue of this type ever produced. The Flemish botanist Matthias de l'Obel wrote an introduction to the text. Wikipedia says: “Gerard's lack of scientific training and knowledge led him to frequently include material that was incorrect, folklore or mythical, such as the barnacle tree that bore geese. Nevertheless, the work, which includes more than 1,000 plants in 167 chapters remained popular, providing in English much information about the names, habits and uses of many plants known and rare. At the time it was considered the best and most exhaustive work of its kind, and a standard reference for some time.” No doubt he did include plants from his own garden and ones that he had received from the New World, but much of the Herball was not original. He was buried at St Andrews, Holborn on 18 February, 1612, but the grave is unmarked. The genus Gerardia was published in 1846 by George Bentham. (ref. genus Gerardia)
  • gerard'ii: named after eminent French botanist and physician Louis Gérard (1733-1819). He was born in Cotignac and after studying in Draguignan, he turned to medicine at the encouragement of a friend of his father’s and received a medical degree of some kind. He joined the faculty of Montpelier, where he took up botany. He then traveled to Provence to harvest the plants that appeared in his Gallo-provincialis Flora, published in Latin in 1761 while he was living in Paris. Bernard de Jussieu offered him a teaching position in the Jardin des Plantes, but he preferred to return to Provence to practice as a country doctor. He did however continue his activities as a botanist by publishing and maintaining a correspondence with other botanists, and was elected corresponding member of the Royal Academy of Sciences in 1787. He was imprisoned during the Terror for protesting the death sentence of the French magistrate, botanist and statesman Chrétien Guillaume de Lamoignon de Malesherbes but was released. He died in 1819. (ref. Juncus gerardii)
  • german'ica: of or from Germany, German. (ref. Iris germanica)
  • germanor'um: literally means "Germans" in Latin, the -orum ending is usually applied to a personal name to convert it to a specific epithet when the name applies to two or more men or two people with mixed sexes represented. (ref. Lessingia germanorum)
  • -gerous: bearing.
  • ger'ryi: named for Willard Dean Gerry (1945- ), a descendant of Elbridge Gerry, a founding father of the United States and a signer of the Declaration of Independence and Articles of Confederation. He owned the property where this taxon was found. A website of the Wild Farms Foundation says: "Will Gerry is a career agriculturalist, having managed various agricultural operations and the family citrus/avocado ranch for nearly 40 years. Will is currently a partner in Gerry Management, an organization formed to manage the 169 acres of blueberries of the Coastal California Blueberry Operations LLC (CCBB). Will and his brother are responsible for the land redevelopment, planting, cultivation and harvesting of the blueberries for CCBB." (ref. Monardella sinuata ssp. gerryi)
  • Ge'um: an ancient Latin name. The genus Geum was published by Carl Linnaeus in 1753. (ref. genus Geum)
  • gey'eri/geyeria'na: after Karl Andreas Geyer (1809-1853), a German botanist who travelled across the continent in 1843 with a group of missionaries, collecting plants particulary in the camas-dominated prairie areas of northern Idaho and southeastern Washington which were at the time considered 'Upper Oregon.' He collected some 10,000 specimens representing 600 species, and had thirteen species named in his honor by the great British botanist William Hooker. The following was extracted from the Bulletin of the Native Plant Society of Oregon: "Born in Dresden, Germany, in 1809, Geyer was trained in botany as a youth [no doubt influenced by his gardener father and assisting at the Dresden Botanic Garden], and traveled to America in the 1830s heading for St. Louis which he knew was the stepping- off place for exploration of the upper Missouri River and the poorly surveyed western part of the continent. Upon arrival, he attached himself to several expeditions and gained experience in wilderness travel. In 1843 he found a patron in the famous Dr. George Engelmann (of the Engelmann spruce) who financed a collecting trip into the northwest with the understanding that Geyer's plant specimens would come back to Engelmann in St. Louis. Traveling as part of a large and well-supplied party, Geyer started west along the Oregon Trail in 1843 -- the same year as the first major migration of pioneers in covered wagons. Leaving the large party as he neared what is now Idaho, Geyer traveled with smaller groups, staying at Indian villages and missions as he explored much of what is now Idaho and Washington state. As he traveled and collected, Geyer kept a detailed journal of his observations. He was particularly interested in Indian uses of plants and his ethnobotanical notes are especially useful. Fortunately for us, this narrative of Geyer's travels was published by William Hooker along with the names of the plants discovered by the explorer. Geyer returned to Germany after his adventure in the American west and there he died, a relatively young man in his early 40s, perhaps worn out by his strenuous explorations of a raw new land." Geyer was also engaged by the French professor of mathematics and physical geographer Joseph Nicholas Nicollet and accompanied him on an expedition to the Upper Mississippi [Minnesota] in 1838. Many of Geyer's plants were described by John Torrey. He joined John C. Fremont in 1841 on a trip to Iowa, again collecting plants wherever he went. After sailing to England to study collections at Kew, he returned to his native Saxony in 1845. (ref. Astragalus geyeri, Melica geyeri, Salix geyeriana)
  • gianon'ei: after Swiss dairyman and immigrant Ambrogio Gianone (1843-1922) who ran a dairy on the Swanton Pacific Ranch in Santa Cruz County. He had settled in the area around 1867, constructed first a cheese house and later a barn in 1880 (both of which are still standing), and eventually bought a third of the ranch land on the northern end now known as Gianone Hill. The cheese produced there was called Santa Cruz Jack Cheese, said to be the forerunner of Monterey Jack. From an obituary in the Santa Cruz Evening News, Thursday, August 3, 1922: "Veteran dairyman called by death. Pioneer dairymen of the coast Mr. Gianone, for about the past ten years, has been living a life of retirement, but frequently visited the dairy, which is now under the management of his two sons, Emil and Joe. Mr. Gianone located up the coast about 40 years ago and his place was known by all the older Santa Cruz-ans, especially those that made it a point to camp up the coast and who were always accommodated with favors by Mr. Gianone. He was a man of fine principles, honest in all dealings and one who had a high regard for all his close friends. For some time past Mr. Gianone has not enjoyed the best of health and this began to manifest itself shortly after the death of his wife, which occurred shortly over a year ago. Mr. Gianone was a conspicuous figure on the streets of Santa Cruz for some years and previous to his last illness made it a daily practice to, spend a few hours each day with his friend Frank Roberts, at the latter's store. In the death of Mr. Gianone Santa Cruz loses a type of citizen that is a valuable asset to any community. While born in Switzerland, Mr. Gianone came to this country when a young man. He was 79 years of age. The surviving children are Emil, Joe and Emma Gianone, and Mrs. Virginia Gillen." Thanks to David Hollombe for digging that up. (ref. Carex gianonei)
  • gib'ba: swollen on one side. (ref. Lemna gibba, Utricularia gibba)
  • gib'bonsii: named for William Peters Gibbons (1812-1897). He was born in Wilmington, Delaware, and died in California. He was president of the state medical society in 1886. He collected the type specimen at the mouth of the Columbia River in 1889. (ref. Senecio gibbonsii)
  • gibbo'sa: swollen on one side. (ref. Sarracenia purpurea ssp. gibbosa)
  • gibbs'ii: after Charles Drayton Gibbes (1812-1893), civil engineer, surveyor and map-maker from a distinguished Charleston, SC family and curator of mineralogy at the California Academy of Sciences. He also collected plants in California. A website of the auctioneers Christie’s says: “Charles Gibbes came to California from Charleston, South Carolina during the Gold Rush. ‘This map [Gibbes’ New Map of the Gold Region of California] ...because of its large scale [about 20 miles to the inch] and clear markings in colors of the different counties, is one of the most satisfactory of the early California maps. It shows the state before Klamath County in the north, and Nevada and Placer counties in the center, had been set apart and thus gives an earlier representation than the Butler map published the same year which shows those new counties...An important feature of Gibbes' map is that it is one of the first, if not the first, map of California to show county boundaries’ (Streeter). Gibbes' map was published within a year of California being admitted into the Union as a part of the Compromise of 1850. Gold production reached its peak in 1852, the year after the map was published. Many mining camps are pictured, including Toualamne City, Empire City, Jacksonville, Downingville, Coloma, Buck's and Illinoistown. The accompanying text provides a description of California, its history, climate, soil, crops, bays, harbors and rivers. Gibbes also gives pertinent information on the mines and advice for equipment. ‘Towns have sprung up at all the principal mining centres, and trading establishments in them furnish all needed supplies of provisions, clothing, tools, and other necessities, at reasonable rates.’" (ref. Astragalus gibbsii)
  • gieseckia'na: named for Charles Lewis Giesecke (aka Carl Ludwig Giesecke) (1761-1833), actor, librettist, explorer,
      and mineralogist. He was actually born Johann Georg Metzler and his father of the same name was a tailor in Augsburg, Germany. He was unusual in the sense that he had two completely unrelated careers. He attended the Gymnasium in Augsburg and the University of Göttingen from 1781 to 1784, studying law. He also developed a side interest in mineralogy, attending the lectures of the naturalist Johann Friedrich Blumenbach, something that presaged his later career. It was in 1781 that he took the pseudonym by which he is now known, and what appears to be the case is that he
    wanted to disguise his ancestry for some reason. It was not until 1910 that a Danish geologist discovered his original name. In 1784 he left the University and become an itinerant actor who worked in various theaters, acting and singing, writing original plays and operas for the theatre, and travelling through Germany, Austria, and other parts of central Europe. An article by A. Whittaker entitled "The Travels and Travails of Sir Charles Lewis Geisecke” (Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 287, 149-160, 2007) says “Additionally, during his theatrical career he was engaged not only in stage management but also in the adaptation and translation of many varied works for the theatre especially in the genres of comedy, parody and travesty. At intervals he also worked as a journalist or critic, covering theatrical performances in various cities. Most importantly, for twelve years or so he was a senior member of, and official playwright to, the famous Freihaus Theatre company in Vienna, a company run by the impresario Emanuel Schikaneder, who together with the composer Mozart, conceived and staged the celebrated and seminal opera ‘The Magic Flute’ in 1791. Giesecke played the role of the First Slave in this opera and was stage manager for many of its performances. Later in his life, while visiting Vienna in 1818, and during his professorial appointment to the Dublin Society, Giesecke was reported to have claimed authorship of important parts of the opera's famous libretto.” In 1794 his original interest in minerology began to resurface and he obtained a mineral dealer’s license in Vienna in 1800. He studied for a time with the famous German minerologist Abraham Gottlob Werner at the Bergakademie in Freiberg. After leaving Vienna, he conducted minerological surveys in Sweden in 1803 and 1804 and then in Norway in 1805, after which he settled in Copenhagen where he worked as a mineral dealer, collector, and tutor. He next turned to the Faroe Islands and Greenland, where he conducted extensive and successful scientific surveys, but while there his existing collections in Copenhagen were destroyed when the British bombarded the city. Then a major collection of materials from Greenland aboard a Danish ship was taken by the Royal Navy and auctioned off in Edinburgh in 1808. Finally his stay in Greenland extended from two years to seven as the British had captured the Danish navy and he had no means of returning home. He explored much of the Greenland coast, contributing much to the knowledge of its geography, information which was later useful to Sir John Franklin and William Scoresby In the search for the Northwest Passage. He was not merely interested in rocks however, and collected botanical specimens such as the Greenland bellflower eventually named for him, and recorded information about the human history and ethnography of Greenland based on his his observations of the Eskimos and of the extinct Viking settlements there. Because the collection of materials taken by the British had been recognized as significant, his name was put forward for the position of professor of minerology at the Royal Dublin Society, and he was chosen in 1814 and remained there until 1833, taking the name Charles Lewis instead of Carl Ludwig. Between 1817 and 1819 he took a leave of absence and travelled back to Copenhagen, Augsburg and Vienna with other stops along the way, renewing theater acquaintances from his past and delivering a collection of mineralogical specimens to the Emperor of Austria, Francis I. In the 1820’s he conducted much minerological fieldwork in rural Ireland, visiting such locations as Galway, Mayo, the island of Achill, Donegal, Londonderry, Antrim, Tyrone, and Co. Down. He died rather suddenly in Dublin. (Much of this information from Wikipedia) (ref. Campanula gieseckiana)
  • gif'fordii: named for American anthropologist, ornithologist and conchologist Edward Winslow Gifford (1887-1959).
      He was born and educated in Oakland, California, where his formal schooling ended with a high school diploma. Although he became a professor of anthropology and director of the Museum of Anthropology at the University of California, Berkeley, he never attended college. He became associated first with the California Academy of Sciences in 1903 as a student conchologist on an expedition to Revillagigado Island, Mexico. From 1904 to 1912 he was assistant and then assistant curator in the Academy’s Department of Ornithology. He took part as ornithologist on the 1905-
    1906 expedition to the Galápagos Islands. In 1912 he left the Academy to become assistant curator of the Museum of Anthropology at UC Berkeley, becoming Curator in 1925. In 1920 he was appointed a lecturer in anthropology at Berkeley. He retired in 1955 as Professor Emeritus and accepted the Honorary Curatorship of Anthropology at the California Academy of Sciences, which he held until his death. He was one of the few men of the century to hold a full professorship at a major university without having attended college. Other field trips he was involved with were the 1920-1921 Bernice P. Bishop Museum's expedition to Tonga where he was anthropologist-in-charge, a five- intensive archaeological excavation in the Fijis in 1947, the seven months spent in New Caledonia in 1952, and then four months in archaeological exploration and excavation in 1956 at Yap in the Caroline Islands of the western Pacific. He was accompanied by his wife on all of these. Much of his work was on various aspects of the Indians of California and the Southwestern United States, although this was overshadowed by his work in the Pacific. He published extensively in journals such as Aviculture, Journal of the Polynesian Society, American Anthropologist and Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences, and journals of the Bishop Museum and the University of California. He died in his sleep in 1959 in Paradise, California, after a year of illness. (ref. Asclepias giffordii) (Photo credit: Cambridge University Press)
  • gigan'tea/giganteum: gigantic. (ref. Carnegiea gigantea, Epipactis gigantea, Leptosyne gigantea, Ammoselinum giganteum, Eriogonum giganteum, Sequoiadendron giganteum)
  • gigantosper'mum: huge-seeded. (ref. Chenopodium gigantospermum)
  • gi'gas: giant. (ref. Carex gigas)
  • Gil'ia: after Filippo Luigi Gilii (1756-1821). I have encountered much confusion about the name of the person this genus is named after, but I here quote information from my friend Al Schneider of the website Southwest Colorado Wildflowers, and I thank him for it: "Italian naturalist, [astronomer], clergyman, and Director of the Vatican Observatory, for twenty-one years Gilii made twice daily meteorological readings at the Observatory, and he had the meridian line and obelisk placed in front of St. Peter's for readings of the seasons. With the first Argentinean botanist, Gaspar Xuarez (1731-1804), Gilli co-authored the three volumes of Observazioni Fitologiche (1789, 1790, 1792) a work on the value of American (primarily South American) cultivated plants, their sexuality, form of reproduction, anatomy, etc. Most of the plants had been cultivated by the natives before the discovery of America and some were grown in the Vatican gardens." According to Umberto Quattrocchi, his major works were Agri Romani Historia naturalis (1781) and Delineazione dei generi naturali (1785). David Hollombe has also confirmed that this particular botanist's name should be correctly spelled Gilii, not Gilli or Gil, and that its pronunciation should follow the Italian rule which makes a 'g' before 'i' soft. Also in Italian the 'i' is pronounced as 'ee,' so in order to preserve the pronunciation of the original name, Gilia should properly be said as 'JEE-lee-uh." I find no evidence that he was Spanish as is sometimes said or that a Spanish pronunciation should be given to his name. Al Schneider has convincingly (to me) explained the situation by saying "It was apparently assumed by some botanical historian, probably in the 19th century, that since Ruiz and Pavon [who published the genus name in 1794] were Spanish and the dedication states that Gilia honors a "Felipe Gil", Gil must have been Spanish.  But this assumption overlooked the fact that the dedication of the genus in 1794 says that it is to the person who co-authored Observazioni Fitologiche with Xuarez.  That person was not a Spaniard named Felipe Gil but an Italian named Filippo Luigi Gilii. Ruiz and Pavon could have averted the confusion by using the proper Italian spelling of Gilii's name." (ref. genus Gilia)
  • gilles'piei: named for John Wynn Gillespie (1901-1932), plant collector, explorer and writer on the flora of Fiji, who died at the age of 30. (ref. Chaenactis gillespiei)
  • gil'liesii/gillies'ii: I have encountered some discrepancies in references to the man whose name was given to the plant here in question. One source says it was named for John Gillies, an early 19th century botanist in Argentina. Another reference is to the Scottish physician John Gillies who travelled in the Argentinian Andes, but this is probably the same person. L.H. Bailey's Manual of Cultivated Plants attributes the name of Caesalpinia gilliesii to John Gillies (1747-1836), a traveller in South America, again probably the same person but it appears certain that Bailey got the dates confused with the John Gillies who was a well-regarded Scottish historian and classical scholar, neither a physician or a botanist, or a person who ever travelled in South America. Finally, the Darwin Correspondence Online Database created by the Darwin Correspondence Project at University Library, Cambridge, England, which I believe to be a dependable source, has a reference to a John Gillies (1792-1834) who was a naval surgeon who went to Buenos Aires in 1820 and collected plants in Chile and Argentina, returning to Scotland in 1829. This is the person I think this plant is named for. Sara Scharf, PhD candidate at the University of Toronto, contacted me with the following information which I think clears up the matter quite adequately: "He was not just a naval surgeon but an avid botanist. He was from the Orkney Islands and learned medicine in Edinburgh. Forced to leave the UK due to bad health, he lived in Argentina and other South American countries in the 1820's. During this time he was in constant contact via letters with many of the leading botanists of his day, including Robert Brown, Hooker, John Lindley, H.C. Watson and even the young George Bentham. He sent them plants and biogeographical information, they sent him books. He returned to Scotland in January 1829."  Thanks to Sara for resolving these discrepancies. The only addition I have to make is from David Hollombe who has done a family search which shows a John Gillies, son of John Gillies and Helen Frazer, born 10 July 1790, christened 17 July 1790 at Orphir, Orkney. John Gillies, Sr. was steward of Lord Armadale's Orkney estates on the island of Mainland where Orphir is located. The birth year of 1792 has been widely repeated but may in fact be incorrect. He was educated at the University of Edinburgh and it was apparently tuberculosis that caused his removal to South America. (ref. Caesalpinia gilliesii)
  • gill'manii: named for Henry Gillman (1833-1915), ethnologist, curator for the Detroit Scientific Society, librarian at
      the Detroit Public Library, plant collector, and civil engineer. He was born in Kinsale, Ireland, and was educated first by tutors, then at Hamilton Academy in Bandon, County Cork, Ireland. His family emograted to Detroit, Michigan, in 1850. A webpage entitled “Biographies of People who Contributed Plants to the Putnam Museum Herbarium” (part of the Plants of Iowa website) says: “Gillman's multifaceted career illustrates his personal versatility. He was part of the topographic and hydrographical team associated with the U. S. Geodetic Survey of the Great Lakes from 1851
    to 1869 and from 1870 to 1876 Henry was an assistant supervisor for construction in lighthouse districts ten and eleven on the Northern Lakes (an area, part of which, encompassed Lakes Erie, Huron, Michigan, and Superior. The Detroit Scientific Association was established in 1874, with Henry Gillman as one of the original organizers and a collection curator. During the years 1880 to 1885 Henry worked as superintendent and librarian with the Detroit Public Library. In 1886 Gillman's political support of Grover Cleveland in the presidential campaign translated into his appointment as U.S. Consul to Jerusalem from 1886 to 1891, during which time he was a leader in the effort to prevent the expulsion by Ottoman rulers of Jews from Palestine. Beyond that, Mr. Gillman was involved in botanical and archaeological research. Prior to 1885 a number of short botanical pieces authored by H. Gillman appear in the issues of The American Naturalist." At some point early in his career he contracted as a survey assistant for the U.S. Department of War and made charts of many Michigan locations. He forwarded a  proposal to the Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology of Harvard University that he undertake an excavation of the Detroit area Indian mounds, and sometime in the early-to-mid 1870s, with the approval of the U.S. government, he opened the Fort Wayne burial mound in the River Rouge area and other indian mounds nearby. He corresponded with George Engelmann, and was a believer in phrenology, which is the study of racial characteristics as supposedly revealed by the cranial capacity of humans. He was married and had at least four children. He died in Detroit. (ref. Lophozia gillmanii) (Photo credit: Detroit Public Library)
  • Gilman'ia/gilman'ii/gil'manii: after Marshall French Gilman (1871-1944), a Death Valley naturalist. The genus Gilmania was published in 1936 by Frederick Vernon Coville. (ref. genus Gilmania, also Astragalus gilmanii, Cymopterus gilmanii, Ericameria [formerly Haplopappus] gilmanii, Eriogonum gilmanii, Petalonyx gilmanii)
  • girdia'na: after Henry Harrison Gird (1826-1913), who was born in New York and moved with his family as a baby to Louisiana where his father, Henry Hatton Gird III, was appointed the second President and Professor of Mathematics and Natural History at the College of Louisiana, at that time the largest university west of the Mississippi River. He was educated at private schools in Jackson and then at the College. He did not finish his education however because in 1844 he moved with his father and his brother Edward to Illinois, where his father had been buying land since 1837, and they engaged in farming and stockraising. He married Martha Lewis in 1849. His father and younger brother Richard died shortly thereafter. A son, Henry Lewis, was born in 1851 but unfortunately died during a malaria epidemic the following year. These tragedies and his dissatisfaction with conditions in Illinois prompted him to move west, not for gold but for fertile land, and he sold the farm and emigrated to California. Henry and his wife Martha and brother Edward started out from St. Louis with three wagons in 1853 and crossed the plains successfully. A daughter, Mary, was born in a tent en route. The first Gird Ranch was near Hangtown, later renamed Placerville, a booming mining town in 1853. Henry never felt the lure of the mines, but went to farming, raising stock and selling his produce to the miners. Their son, William, was born in Hangtown on January 22, 1856. Deciding to go further north, they moved to a ranch near Nicholas, in Sutter County. A third child, Lucy Ellen, was born here on February 28, 1859, and she lived until the age of 103. The fall of 1861 found them at Calto Lake, Mendocino County where they spent a hard, cold winter. In the spring, they moved down the coast to San Jose. By the fall of 1862 they reached Los Angeles, where they purchased the Cienega Rancho, where they remained for almost 20 years. This ranch of nearly 1000 acres was in the Crenshaw/Angeles Vista/La Brea section of modern Los Angeles ( now the heart of downtown LA). The famous La Brea Tar Pits was on part of their Ranch. It was then an ideal farming and stock raising location and the family prospered. Two more daughters were born here: Sarah Ann (called "Sally") on February 24, 1863, and Katie Lenora, born on May 17, 1868. Sally died October 23, 1884, but Katie lived until 1945. Henry and Martha had had another daughter, Carrie Augusta, born July 4, 1866, but she lived only a few months, dying on October 6, 1866. With the children growing up, they needed a school. Henry Gird became active in organizing a school district, with the result that a district bearing his name was formed. It was bounded on the south by Vernon, on the east by Los Angeles, on the north by Santa Monica, and on the west by the Pacific Ocean. In 1876 he heard about some land in northern San Diego County which lay along both sides of the San Luis Rey River, a short distance above Bonsall, and was a tract of 4590 acres called Rancho Monserate. The land was a North county Mexican land grant, originally planned to have been the dwelling place for the last of the California-Mexican governors, "Pio Pico". To the Alvarado Family, to whom Governor Pico granted the ranch, it became Rancho Monserate, named for a mountain is Spain where a monastery had stood since 800 A.D. - the Virgin Mary is said to have appeared there. A small pox epidemic had broken out there in 1863, killing 21 persons, including the owner who had been nursing the sick. His son inherited the Rancho and lived there for a time afterward, constructing a new adobe ranch house. It was later to be his wedding gift to his daughter, Senora Serano, but she was killed and Don Alvarado decided to sell it- too many tragedies for one family in that once happy place. The ranch lands reached east to the Pala area. The San Luis Rey Valley was a lush fertile valley that lay below the sage covered foothills of the San Jacinto Mountain Range of the Sierra Madres. Henry Gird saw this place as ideal and the deal was closed at Pala (Palomar Mountain) in 1876, where at that time the only notary public was located. So in 1880 he moved his family south from Los Angeles. They traveled down the coastline and then across country through the small villages of Anaheim, Santa Anna, and Capistrano, and across the big Santa Margarita Rancho, camping at the ford across the San Luis Rey River near the mission. Because of the mountains, they had to go down the coastline, about 10 miles farther south of their destination, and double back east and north through the San Luis Rey River Valley past the famous Mission - an added 20 miles or more to the already long trip from Los Angeles. Henry and Martha Gird, with the help of their son, Will, were very successful in their new home. They raised fine horses, mostly trotting stock, and had many cattle. A family orchard was started and at one time contained practically every kind of fruit suited to the location. There were fruit trees from Australia, Africa, and the three northern continents. The Gird Ranch was a popular place. There was a saying at that time that "All roads lead to Girds." The road that led to the Gird Ranch was later named "Gird Road". It was Henry Harrison Gird who brought the grape species that eventually bore his name to the attention of Thomas Volney Munson (1843-1913), a grape breeder in Dennison, Texas, and one of the leading experts in native American grape species, who described and named it. Henry and Martha died within a few months of each other at Fallbrook in 1913. [Personal information and stories pertaining to Henry Harrison Gird very kindly provided by Teddie Anne "Annie" Driggs, a great-great-granddaughter to whom I am indebted.] (ref. Vitis girdiana)
  • girgensohn'ii: named for Estonian botanist and bryologist Gustav Carl Girgensohn (1786-1872), author of Naturgeschichte der Laub- und Lebermoose Liv-, Ehst- und Kurlands. He was born and raised in Latvia but moved to Estonia where he began to explore the mosses. He compiled several collections of specimens, the largest of which is at the University of Tartu’s Museum of Natural History. (ref. Sphagnum girgensohnii)
  • githa'go: from the Latin and Old English gith, the name of a kind of plant with aromatic black seeds (corn-cockle or Roman coriander), and -ago, a Latin substantival suffix used to indicate a resemblance or property. A. githago is now called corn-cockle, whereas Roman coriander is Nigella sativa, a plant with similar blackish caraway-like seeds. (ref. Agrostemma githago)
  • Githop'sis: from the Greek for "Githago-like." Thomas Nuttall published the genus Githopsis in 1843. (ref. genus Githopsis)
  • glabel'la: rather or somewhat glabrous. (ref. Viola glabella)
  • gla'ber: without hairs, glabrous.
  • glaberri'ma/glaberri'mum/glaberri'mus: completely glabrous. (ref. Lasthenia glaberrima, Epilobium glaberrimum ssp. glaberrimum, Ranunculus glaberrimus)
  • gla'bra/gla'brum: smooth or hairless. (ref. Glycyrrhiza glabra, Hypochaeris glabra, Turritis glabra, Acer glabrum)
  • glabra'ta: somewhat glabrous. (ref. Cornus glabrata, Lasthenia glabrata, Malacothrix glabrata, Tetradymia glabrata)
  • glabres'cens: becoming glabrous. (ref. Eremogone kingii var. glabrescens, Holodiscus microphyllus var. glabrescens)
  • glabrisep'ala: with glabrous sepals. (ref. Keckiella breviflora var. glabrisepala)
  • gla'brius: glabrous. (ref. Galium sparsiflorum ssp. glabrius)
  • glabrius'cula: derived from two Latin words meaning "smooth" and "little," hence "rather smooth and hairless." (ref. Chaenactis glabriuscula var. glabriuscula)
  • glacia'lis: from icy-cold regions. (ref. Erigeron glacialis)
  • glaciogen'a: from glaciated areas. David Hollombe sent along the following: "All localities are granitic ones and were formerly glaciated; the exposed rocky areas thus allow the two parents to occur very near one another, rather than elevationally separated as is usually the case." (ref. Pellaea X glaciogena)
  • Gladio'lus: from the Latin gladiolus, "little sword," for the leaf shape. Gladiolus was one of the many genera published by Carl Linnaeus in 1753. (ref. genus Gladiolus)
  • Glandular'ia: according to Umberto Quattrocchi, this is from the Latin glandulae, "a little acorn, tonsils." The genus Glandularia was published by Johann Friedrich Gmelin in 1791. (ref. genus Glandularia)
  • glandulif'era/glandulif'erus: bearing or producing glands. (ref. Lessingia glandulifera var. glandulifera, Lessingia glandulifera var. tomentosa, Nemacladus glanduliferus)
  • glandulo'sa/glandulo'sum/glandulo'sus: means "provided with glands," referring to the secreting structures on the surface ending in hairs or other plant parts. (ref. Arctostaphylos glandulosa ssp. adamsii, Arctostaphylos glandulosa ssp. crassifolia, Arctostaphylos glandulosa ssp. mollis, Drymocallis glandulosa var. glandulosa, Drymocallis glandulosa var. reflexa, Lagophyllum glandulosa, Layia glandulosa, Prosopsis glandulosa, Purshia tridentata var. glandulosa, Epilobium ciliatum ssp. glandulosum, Eriogonum glandulosum, Ledum glandulosum, Teucrium glandulosum, Streptanthus glandulosus)
  • glau'ca/glau'cum/glau'cus: glaucous, from the Greek meaning "bluish-gray," referring primarily to the leaves, and specifically to "bloom," the fine, whitish powder that coats the leaves of certain plants. (ref. Agoseris glauca, Arctostaphylos glauca, Erigeron glauca, Hoffmanseggia glauca, Nicotiana glauca, Poa glauca, Chenopodium glaucum, Delphinium glaucum, Hordeum murinum ssp. glaucum, Caulanthus glaucus, Elymus glaucus ssp. glaucus, Elymus glaucus ssp. jepsonii, Erigeron glaucus)
  • glauces'cens: somewhat glaucous. (ref. Sidalcea glaucescens)
  • glaucifo'lius: having gray-green leaves. (ref. Rubus glaucifolius)
  • Glau'cium: from the Greek word for "glaucous." The genus Glaucium was published by Philip Miller in 1754. (ref. genus Glaucium)
  • glaucomol'lis: soft and glaucous. (ref. Arctostaphylos glandulosa ssp. glaucomollis)
  • glaucophyl'lum: with glaucous leaves. (ref. Chenopodium strictum var. glaucophyllum)
  • glaucoval'vula: glaucous-valved. (ref. Arabis glaucovalvula)
  • Glaux: a name used by Pliny and applied by Dioscorides to another plant, wart cress, a species of Coronopus. The genus Glaux was published by Carl Linnaeus in 1753. (ref. genus Glaux)
  • glaziovia'na: named after the French civil engineer, landscape designer and botanist Auguste Francois Marie Glaziou
      (1828-1906) who was trained at the Museu de Historia Natural de Paris and was a plant collector in Brazil. After arriving in Brazil in 1858 at the age of 25, he was appointed General Director of Public Gardens for the city of Rio de Janeiro and designed the beautiful gardens at the Quinta de Boa Vista which was the official home to the Royal and Imperial Family from 1809 to 1889. His duties later expanded to include the entire state and its forests. Brazil was Portugal's most important colony and when the troops of Napoleon forced the King, Dom João VI, to abdicate,
    he fled with his family to Rio de Janeiro where he was crowned Emperor Pedro I of Brazil in 1822. Today the area is known as Campo de Santana Park or the Auguste Francois Marie Glazious Gardens. The herbarium which Glaziou ammassed contained more than 24,000 specimens of some 12,000 species, and he sent live plants and seeds to European botanical gardens. He was also honored with the generic names Neoglaziovia, Glaziova, Glaziostelma, Glaziophyton, Bisglaziovia, Glaziophytum, and Glaziocharis, and was the co-author with Antoine Laurent Apollinaire Fée of the two-volume Cryptogames vasculaire (Fougères, lycopodiacées, hydroptéridées, équisétacées) du Brésil (1869-1873). (ref. Oenothera glazioviana)
  • glea'sonii: named after Mt. Gleason, location of the species formerly called Castilleja gleasonii and now included in C. pruinosa according to the Jepson Manual.
  • Glebio'nis: from the Latin gleba, "soil," and -ionis, "characteristic of," of uncertain application. The genus Glebionis was published in 1826 by Alexandre Henri Gabriel de Cassini. (ref. genus Glebionis)
  • Glecho'ma: from the Greek glechon, an old name for a kind of mint, possibly the pennyroyal, Mentha pulegium. The genus Glechoma was published in 1753 by Carl Linnaeus. (ref. genus Glechoma)
  • Gledit'sia: named for German botanist and physician Johann Gottlieb Gleditsch (1714-1786) known for his pioneer
      investigations of plant sexuality and reproduction. He was born in Leipzig and died in Berlin. Wikipedia says: “He studied medicine and other subjects at the University of Leipzig (1728–35), where one of his instructors was naturalist Johann Ernst Hebenstreit. From 1742 he gave lectures in physiology, botany and materia medica at the University of Frankfurt, afterwards relocating to Berlin as a professor of botany at the Collegium Medico-chirurgicum and director of the local botanical garden. Beginning in 1770, he gave lectures at the recently established Institute of
    Forestry, where he was instrumental in providing a scientific basis for the field of forestry.  In his experiments involving plant movement, he demonstrated the influence that climatic factors had upon plant organs. Also, his views on the role that insects play in pollination of plants was considered to be ahead of its time. The botanical genus Gleditsia is named in his honor, as is the botanical journal Gleditschia.”  He was one of the founders of what we know as the study of economic botany, and published several important works, including Methodus Fungorum (1753), Systema Plantarum (1764) and Botanica Medica (1788-1789). John Clayton published the genus in 1753. (ref. genus Gleditsia)
  • Glehn'ia: after Peter von Glehn (1835-1876), Russian botanist and plant explorer in Baltic Russia, author of Flora
      der Umgebung Dorpats. He was born in Estonia  to a Baltic German landowner and died in St. Petersburg. He graduated in mathematics and physics from the University of Tartu, but had been interested in botany from his earliest years.  He met the Estonian botanist and geologist Friedrich B. Schmidt, also known as Carl Friedrich Schmidt and Fyodor Bogdanovich Schmidt, and agreed to accompany him to northern Siberia. The expedition, mounted by the Imperial Russian Geographical Society, was to traverse the Transbaikal, Sakhalin, Daurian, Amur and Manchurian regions. In March 1860 they departed from St. Petersburg and in May they came
    to the upper reaches of the Amur River. From July to September, they botanized together at Sakhalin. Beginning in April and for the entire summer of 1861, Glehn botanised along with the ethnographer and plant collector A.D. Brylkin in the Douai region and along the coast of the Japanese Sea. In September he first returned to the Amur River and then traveled back to St. Petersburg along with an extensive collection of botanical, geological and ethnographic material. The report from this expedition was published in 1868 in Russian and in German in the Proceedings of the Russian Geographical Society. In January 1867, Glehn was appointed director of the Botanical Garden in Petrograd. Here he dealt with the processing of the collected Siberian collection of plants in collaboration with other botanists, such as Igor Poláková and A.L. Czekanowski. Peter von Glehn died at the young age of 41. His name is also on Picea glehnii, called Glehn’s spruce or Sakhalin spruce. The genus Glehnia was published by Schmidt in 1867. (ref. genus Glehnia)
  • Glin'us: Greek for "sweet juice," glinos and glinon were names used by Theophrastus and Pliny for a maple tree, a plant with sweet sap. The genus Glinus was published by Linnaeus in 1753. (ref. genus Glinus) (ref. genus Glinus)
  • globif'era/globif'erus: bearing globe-shaped or spherical clusters. (ref. Matricaria globifera)
  • globo'sa/globo'sus: spherical or globe-shaped, usually referring to the flower head. (ref. Carex globosa, Condalia globosa, Wolffia globosa, Cymopterus globosus)
  • globular'is: pertaining to a small sphere or globe. (ref. Rhynchospora globularis)
  • globulo'sus: small and globular.
  • glob'ulus: globular, from the Latin for "small, round ball." (ref. Eucalyptus globulus)
  • glomera'ta/glomera'tum/glomera'tus: clustered. (ref. Dactylis glomerata, Datisca glomerata, Madia glomerata, Cerastium glomeratum, Andropogon glomeratus, Halogeton glomeratus)
  • glomeriflor'a: having flowers in glomerules. (ref. Cryptantha glomeriflora)
  • glorio'sa/glorio'sus: superb, glorious. (ref. Amsinckia tessellata var. gloriosa, Ceanothus gloriosus)
  • glos'sa: tongue. (ref. genus Platyglossa)
  • Glossopet'alon: from the Greek meaning "tongue petal" from the shape of the petals. The genus Glossopetalon was published in 1853 by Asa Gray. (ref. genus Glossopetalon)
  • gluma'ceum: with chaffy bracts.
  • glutinicau'le: with sticky stems.
  • glutino'sa/glutino'sum: sticky, referring to the leaves. (ref. Baccharis glutinosa, Allophyllum glutinosum)
  • Glycer'ia: from the Greek glykys, "sweet," referring to the edible grains of Glyceria fluitans. The genus Glyceria was published in 1810 by Robewrt Brown. (ref. genus Glyceria)
  • Glycyrrhi'za: from the Greek glykys, "sweet," and rhiza, "a root," and referring to the root of G. glabra which is the source of commercial liquorice. The genus Glycyrrhiza was published in 1753 by Linnaeus. (ref. genus Glycyrrhiza)
  • glyptocar'pus: from glypto, "to carve or sculpt," and carpos, "fruit." (ref. Plagiobothrys glyptocarpus)
  • Glyptopleur'a: from the Greek glyptos, "carved", and pleura, "side," referring to the sculptured fruit. The genus Glyptopleura was published by Daniel Cady Eaton in 1871. (ref. genus Glyptopleura)
  • glyptosper'ma: from glypto, "to carve," and sperma, in compound words signifying "seeded," thus "carved-seeded," the ashen-gray globose seeds being coarsely pitted. (ref. Chamaesyce glyptosperma, Eschscholzia glyptosperma)
  • gme'linii: named for Johann Georg Gmelin the Younger (1709-1755), German naturalist, botanist and geographer.
      He was born in Tübingen in southwest Germany and clearly a gifted student began attending university lectures at 14. In 1727 he graduated with a medical degree at the age of 18, then travelled to St. Petersburg where he obtained a fellowship at the Academy of Sciences the following year. In 1730 he was a lecturer at the university and the next year was appointed professor of chemistry and natural history. He was chosen as the natural historian of Vitus Bering’s Second Kamchatka Expedition (1733–43). He started out by travelling through the Urals and
    western Siberia to Yeniseysk with the student Stepan Krasheninnikov (see Krasheninnikovia). He determined the Yeniseyev River as the boundary between Europe and Asia and arrived at Yakutsk in late 1736. All his natural history collections, instruments and other equipment, drawings and notes were destroyed in a fire, but he re-collected many of the specimens the following summer. He returned to St. Petersburg in 1743 after spending nine and a half years and travelling some 24,000 miles, and returned to the University of Tübingen in 1747 to become professor of medicine and later director of the botanic garden. He was elected a foreign member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences in 1749. Over the years 1747-1769 he published his four-volume Flora Sibirica which was based on his observations and collections and contained descriptions of almost 1200 species. A fifth volume mostly on cryptogams was written by Krasheninnikov but never published. Gmelin remained in Tübingen for the remainder of his life. (ref. Agropyron gmelinii, Archangelica gmelinii, Atriplex gmelinii, Conioselinum gmelinii)
  • gnaphaloi'des: like genus Gnaphalium. (ref. Stylocline gnaphaloides)
  • Gnaphal'ium: derived from the Greek gnaphalon, "a lock of wool," describing these plants as floccose-woolly. The genus Gnaphalium was published in 1753 by Carl Linnaeus. (ref. genus Gnaphalium)
  • gno'ma: Edmund Jaeger's A Source-Book of Biological Names and Terms says that this from the Greek gnoma, "a mark or sign," but David Hollombe says "I think Dudleya gnoma is from 16th century Latin, not Greek or Classical Latin; as in 'gnomus' of Paracelsus, that we get the modern 'gnome' from. The author (Stephen McCabe) mentions that the plant was in cultivation under the name "D. greenei 'White Sprite'." One of its common names is Munchkin dudleya or Munchkin liveforever. (ref. Dudleya gnoma)
  • god'dardii: named for Pliny Earle Goddard (1869-1928), linguist, ethnologist and especially an authority on the
      languages and cultures of the Athabaskans of western North America. He was born born in Lewiston, Maine to a Quaker family. He attended Earlham College in Richmond, Indiana, where he received an A.B. in 1892 and an M.A. in 1896. Between 1892 and 1896 he taught Latin in secondary schools in Indiana and Kansas, than accepted a position as interdenominational missionary to the Hupa people in northern California, which necessitated him learning a language quite different from any he had ever experienced. He resigned from the missionary post in 1900
    and began graduate study at Berkeley, and in 1901 was given an Assistantship in the university's newly formed Anthropology department. In 1904 he was awarded a Ph.D. fore his work on Hupa linguistics. He was promoted to assistant professor in 1906 mostly in charge of undergraduate anthropology and linguistics programs. He extended his researches to compiling information on the other surviving varieties of California Athabaskans including the Kato, Wailaki, and Sinkyone. He resigned in 1909 to take a curatorship in ethnology at the American Museum of Natural History, in New York, engineered for him by the great German-American anthropologist Franz Boas, and he expanded his researches to include the Athabaskans of the Southwest, Canada, and Alaska. He wrote exensively on general ethnological topics and served as  editor of the American Anthropologist (1915–20). In 1917 Boas and Goddard co-founded and edited the International Journal of American Linguistics, which soon became the principal organ of American Indian linguistic scholarship. For years he was involved in a controversy with another anthropologist, Edward Sapir, over whether Athabaskan languages were tonal, possibly with a relationship to Chinese and Tibetan. He died in 1928. One of his sons, David R. Goddard, also attended UC Berkeley where he studied botany, going on to have a distinguished academic career as a plant physiologist and geneticist. (ref. Godetia goddardii) (Photo credit: University of California)
  • Godet'ia: named for Charles-Henri Godet (1797-1897), internationally renowned Swiss entomologist, botanist and pteridologist who made extensive botanical collecting trips to Russia, the Ukraine and Italy. He was schooled in Neuchâtel, then undertook studies in classical philology in Zurich, followed by a stint as a Greek teacher at the Hofwil Normal School. He pursued a somewhat itinerant lifestyle, performing as a preceptor (teacher) in Russia where he began to study in depth entomology and botany, and embarking on an exploratory trip in the Caucasus. He worked as preceptor in Paris in 1829 where he made contact with Georges Cuvier. He was in Berlin studying natural sciences in 1832 then made a trip to Sweden the following year. Returning to Neuchâtel  in 1834 he began his study of the regional flora and published Flore de Jura (Flora of the French and Swiss Jura region which included Neuchâtel) in 1852. Later he was librarian of the city of Neuchâtel, and he was friends with Alexandre von Humboldt and one of the founders of the Neuchâtel Horticultural Society and Botanical Gardens. He was the author of Souvenir de la flore des Alpes (1869) and wrote another book on the poisonous plants of the Neuchâtel  area. He was a member of the Swiss Society of Natural Sciences and other learned societies. His brother was the famous theologian Frederick Godet (1812-1900), and his son was Paul Godet (1836- 1911), professor of natural history at the Neuchâtel  Gymnasium, a pioneer in the study of molluscs and Director of the Neuchâtel Museum of Natural History. The genus Godetia was published in honor of Godet in 1835 by Édouard Spach. (ref. genus Godetia)
  • god'freyi: named for botanist Robert Kenneth Godfrey (1911-2000), Professor Emeritus, Florida State University.
      He was born in Bloomsbury, New Jersey, where he was first educated, then undertook undergraduate training at Maryville College in East Tennessee. He began his postgraduate studies at the University of North Carolina, Raleigh, acquiring much knowledge of plants and ecological systems, and gaining a Master’s degree, after which he continued postgraduate training from Harvard University with another Master’s degree. He then spent a brief period in the early 1940s as a horticulturist and gardener on the Orton Plantation near Wilmington, North Carolina. When
    WWII broke out, he enlisted in the Navy and served as a  LtJG in the Pacific. After the war he returned to Orton and married Eleanor "Nell" Niernsee, who was also a veteran having been a US Army nurse in the Pacific. He earned his doctorate in 1952 at Duke University with a thesis on Pluchea, and taught botany and served as curator of the Herbarium at Florida State University from 1954 until his retirement in 1973. The herbarium which he developed and which included more than 180,000 plants was formally named in his honor in 2002. He was a well-known and respected authority on the flora of northern Florida and adjacent areas of Alabama and Georgia. He was the author of Trees, Shrubs, and Woody Vines of Northern Florida and Adjacent Georgia and Alabama (1988) and co-author of Trees of Northern Florida and two volumes of Aquatic and Wetland Plants of Southeastern United States. He died in Key West and is buried in Talahassee. (ref. Nymphaea odorata var. godfreyi) (Photo credit: Florida State University Department of Biological Sciences)
  • gold'manii: named for zoologist and biologist Edward Alphonso Goldman (Goltman) (1873-1946). He was born
      Edward Alphonso Goltman in Mount Carroll, Illinois, to French-German parents. After moving from Pennsylvania to Illinois and then to Nebraska, his father changed the spelling of their surname to Goldman. They finally moved to Tulare County, California, in 1888. Little is known about his early education, if any, but the young man had an interest in natural history, and at the age of 17 he accepted the position of foreman in a vineyard near Fresno. Around 1891, at the conclusion of the Bureau of Biological Survey’s expedition to Death Valley, which had included
    such notables as C. Hart Merriam, Theodore Sherman Palmer, Frederick Coville and the naturalist and ethnologist Edward William Nelson. It so happened that Nelson was proceeding by buckboard through the San Joaquin Valley when he experienced a broken singletree, which is the crossbar to which the horses’ traces were attached. He fetched up at the Goldman ranch for assistance and discovered that Goldman Sr. was an avid amateur naturalist. Nelson was looking for an assistant, and the young man’s name was brought forward, and it was in this manner that Edward became an assistant to Nelson. The following year he was appointed as assistant field agent by the USBS, and he remained a friend and colleague, almost a surrogate son, of Nelson’s until the latter’s death in 1934. He collected first with Nelson in California and then embarked on what was to be a three-month trip to Mexico with him that turned into four years and resulted in visiting most areas of the country and collecting over 20,000 mammal specimens. From 1911 to 1917 he conducted biological field surveys in Panama and Arizona for the USBS. During WWI he was a major in France in the Sanitary Corps. and worked on rodent control. After the war he returned to the USBS and in 1920 published Mammals of Panama. He served as president of the Biological Society of Washington from 1927 to 1929 and then for the next fifteen years was senior biologist for the US Fish and Wildlife Service. From 1943 to 1946 he was an associate in zoology at the Smithsonian Institution, publishing during that time The Wolves of North America with Stanley P. Young. In 1946, shortly before his death, he was chosen as President of the American Society of Mammalogists, but his time there was cut short by a fatal stroke. He was buried in Arlington National Cemetary. After his death, his last work, The Puma, Mysterious American Cat,co-authored by Young was published. Over the course of his career, he described more than three hundred new forms of mammals; and over fifty species and subspecies are named after him. He was also an excellent photographer and writer. During the 1930s he became involved in the development of protective legislation for Mexican mammals and migrating birds. He was considered one of the turn of the century’s great field biologists. (ref. Amelanchier goldmanii, Dudleya goldmanii) (Photo credit: Journal of Mammalogy, Vol. 28, No. 2, 1947)
  • gold'steiniae: named for Lutie Deborah Goldstein (1866-1955), philanthropist, patron of music, and nature lover. She was born in San Francisco and died there at the age of 88. Her pioneer father came to San Francisco in 1852, and she was an  early member of the California Botanical Club and one of Alice Eastwood's devoted admirers. The taxon was published by Eastwood in 1905 in the Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club. (ref. Lathyrus goldsteiniae)
  • good'dingii: named after Leslie Newton Goodding (1880-1967), botanist and collector, one of the first to explore the southern Arizona area, who as a student journeyed to Yellowstone National Park to collect there and in the Montana/Idaho/Tetons area with Dr. Aven Nelson, founder of the Rocky Mountain Herbarium of the University of Wyoming. He discovered the rare Goodding's ash, and had other plants named after him.  He was interested particularly in the flora of the western United States and biodiversity conservation, and travelled throughout the Southwest in his formative years, collecting plant specimens for commercial sale. He was educated at the University of Montana, studied botany, plant pathology and pedagogy (the method and practice of teaching) before teaching at various high schools in Arizona. He also worked for various governmental agencies during the course of his life and contributed especially to erosion control. He was recognised for the creation of the Godding Research Area in Sycamore Canyon by the U.S. Forestry Service; a region protected from grazing, mining and prospecting. Many of his specimens, collected across the western states throughout his life, represented undescribed species, and there are many species named after him, including Sideranthus gooddingii, Salix goodddingii, Verbena gooddingii and Allium gooddingii, among others. (ref. Haplopappus gooddingii, Salix gooddingii, Verbena gooddingii)
  • Goodman'ia/goodmania'na/goodman'ii: after George Jones Goodman (1904-1999), an Oklahoma botanist and authority on Chorizanthe. The following is quoted from a February 2000 newsletter of the American Society of Plant Taxonomists. "Dr. George Jones Goodman, 94, Regents Professor Emeritus of Botany and Curator Emeritus of the Bebb Herbarium at the University of Oklahoma, died peacefully at his home 23 May 1999. Dr. Goodman was born to Elizabeth Jones Goodman and Arthur Duane Goodman on 5 November 1904 in Evanston, Wyoming. He attended the University of Wyoming, graduating in 1929 with a Bachelor of Arts degree with honors in botany. From Washington University in St. Louis he received an M.S. in 1930 and a Ph.D. in 1933. Dr. Goodman joined the faculty of the University of Oklahoma in 1933 as assistant professor of botany and herbarium curator. From 1936 to 1945 Goodman left OU to serve as associate professor of botany and curator of the herbarium at Iowa State College in Ames, Iowa. In 1945 Goodman was invited to return to OU as professor and curator and he remained there until his retirement in 1975. Goodman married Marcia McCay of Muskogee, Oklahoma in 1948. During his career as a botanist Goodman came to be known as a leading expert in the field of plant taxonomy of Oklahoma and the western United States. He was respected, admired, and beloved by his many undergraduate and graduate students and colleagues. He authored 73 publications, described 36 new plant taxa, made 9 new combinations, and had 4 plants named for him. Dr. Goodman was a charter member of the American Society of Plant Taxonomists, the International Association of Plant Taxonomists, the Society for the Study of Evolution, the Southwestern Association of Naturalists, and the Colorado-Wyoming Academy of Science. In addition, he was a member of Phi Beta Kappa, Phi Kappa Phi, Phi Sigma, Phi Chi, Sigma Xi, and the Oklahoma Academy of Science. He received the Phi Sigma Orteriburger Award, the Oklahoma Academy of Science Award of Merit, and a Distinguished Service Citation from OU. Shortly after his 90th birthday, the University of Oklahoma Press published Retracing Major Stephen H. Long's 1820 Expedition: The Itinerary and Botany, a book which Goodman co-authored with a former graduate student, Dr. Cheryl Lawson of Shawnee, Oklahoma. Reviewers described the book as 'a worthy botanical and historical milepost' and 'the challenging model for future accounts of America's past exploring expeditions.' When Rhodora, the Journal of the New England Botanical Club, decided to publish a series of recollections of leading American botanists, Goodman was among the first invited to submit his recollections. Dr. Lawson authored the article from tape recordings she had made of Goodman's reminiscences during their years of field trips together as they conducted research on the Major Long expedition. At the time of his death, Goodman and Dr. Lawson were working on a publication on the plant types of Oklahoma." The genus Goodmania was published by James Reveal and Barbara Ertter in 1976. (ref. genus Goodmania, Oxytheca parishii var. goodmaniana, Eriogonum umbellatum var. goodmanii)
  • good'ridgei: named for John Octavius Goodridge (1811-1865), Royal Navy ship’s surgeon. He was born in Sturminster Newton, Dorset. He became a doctor like his father entered service in the Royal Navy. When the Opium War broke out in 1840 between England and China, he served as an assistant surgeon on the survey ship HMS Starling. After the war he was transferred to the HMS Royal William at davenport, and then in 1845 began service as ship’s surgeon on the survey ship HMS Herald which included in its crew the naturalist Thomas Edmonston. The Herald was assigned to make surveys along the Pacific coast from Chile to Alaska. Goodridge discovered a new species of Mammillaria on Cedar Island off the coast of Baja California. In 1848 the Herald was tasked to join the search for polar explorer John Franklin which was ultimately unsuccessful, and the ship returned to England in 1851 where Goodridge was awarded the Arctic Medal for his participation. He was married in 1852 and had four chldren. In 1853 he was classified as unfit for service and he died of blood poisoning. (ref. Mammilaria goodridgei)
  • Good'yera: after the English botanist John Goodyer (1592-1664). The following is quoted from the Wikipedia entry
      on Goodyer: "Goodyer's reputation was so great that, in 1643 during the English Civil War, Ralph Hopton, one of the senior Royalist commanders, ordered troops to defend and protect John Goodyer, his house, family, servants and estates. John Goodyer was born in Alton, Hampshire. It’s unknown where he was educated but he lived in Petersfield [Hampshire, England] where his house still exists. He was buried in an unmarked grave at St Mary’s church, Buriton, where a stained glass window can be found within the church as a memorial to him showing the Goodyer coat of
    arms. Following his death the Goodyer charity Weston was set up using some of the proceeds from his estate to help the poor. His work and books are now stored at Oxford university and in recognition to his work, the “Goodyera” a small terrestrial herb has been named after him." In 1655, he produced the first translation in English of the Materia Medica of Dioscorides (the first century Greek physician, who served as a medical doctor in the Roman army). Dioscorides' work served as the basis for the practice of western medicine well into the sixteenth century. The genus Goodyera was published by Robert Brown in 1813. (ref. genus Goodyera)
  • gordonia'nus: named after George Gordon (1806-1879), British botanist and horticultural writer who worked for the London Horticultural Society as Foreman of the Horticultoral Society Gardens at Chiswick, near London. Wikipedia says: “Gordon is particularly noted for his work on conifers, publishing The Pinetum in 1858, followed by a Supplement in 1862 and a fully revised second edition of The Pinetum in 1875. He described many new species of conifers from specimens collected by Karl Theodor Hartweg in Mexico and California.” He was born at Lucan, Co. Dublin and trained by his father who was land-steward and gardener at Sterling House, near Dublin. Another page at WikiSource says: “From 1823 to 1827 he was employed in the gardens of two country gentlemen. In 1827 he was in the nursery of J. Colvill in King's Road, Chelsea, when, on 18 Feb. 1828, he was taken on the staff of the Horticultural Society at Chiswick, and, with a brief exception, remained there during the rest of his life. He rose to be one of the foremen, two of his contemporaries being Robert Fortune, the Chinese traveller, and Robert Thompson, well known for his standard volume on garden management. Gordon was foreman of the arboretum, and, having paid special attention to coniferous trees, he brought out his 'Pinetum' [The pinetum: being a synopsis of all the coniferous plants at present known, with descriptions, history and synonyms, and a comprehensive systematic index] in 1858, Robert Glendinning being associated with him in this and a 'Supplement' in 1862, of which book a second edition was produced by B. G. Bohn, the bookseller, in 1875. Dr. Lindley used Gordon's practical knowledge in some papers on conifers in the 'Journal of the Horticultural Society' in 1850 and 1851, hence the authority of Lindley and Gordon for certain species and varieties. The 'Pinetum' was unfortunately neither popular nor scientific, but between both those extremes. His herbarium was bought at his death by Sir Joseph Hooker, and by him presented to the herbarium of the Royal Gardens, Kew. Gordon died at Kew 11 Oct. 1879, having been an associate of the Linnean Society since 16 Feb. 1841.” (ref. Philadelphus lewisii ssp. gordonianus)
  • gord'onii: after the Scottish horticulturist and nurseryman Alexander Gordon (c. 1795?-?). Not much is known about his early life, but an article in The Gardener’s Magazine dated 1827 refers to an Alexander Gordon as gardener to Sir William Wake. This may or may not be the same person. He apparently arrived at New York in 1827 with a shipment of nursery stock. He collected extensively in South Carolina and Georgia in 1831 on a trip during which he visited the principal nurseries and private gardens of the region. He established a nursery at Rochester around 1833 and then moved to Toronto where he was associated with and wrote a series of articles for The Genesee Farmer and was listed as a secretary of the Toronto Horticultural Society founded in 1834. A website article called The Roots of the Toronto Horticultural Society says: "He had arrived in the city the previous year from Rochester in New York, established a nursery on Spadina Avenue, and written a series of articles “On Gardening” that appeared in the Toronto newspaper The Patriot.” He appears to have worked as a nurseryman in various places in order to raise funds to finance his trips, in 1843, over the Oregon Trail through the Wind River Mountains, and in 1845 over the Santa Fe Trail out through New Mexico. He was a colleague at least by correspondence of George Engelmann and may have visited him in 1848. It is also likely that he was in correspondence with Thomas Nuttall. Alexander Gordon collected the first specimens of Ivesia gordonii for science along the upper Platte River in 1844 (from the Southwest Colorado Wildflowers website). The JSTOR website refers to a letter from Gordon in Mobile, Alabama to Sir William Hooker dated 23 Dec. 1844: "Gordon informs Hooker that he has not gone further on his intended journey than Mobile. He explains that he left New York, travelling via Philadelphia, crossed the Allighaney [Alligheny] Mountains, reached the head of the Ohio River at Pittsburgh and descended the river to its junction with the Mississippi. Whilst going down the Mississippi to New Orleans on a steam boat called 'The Belle', there was a collision and the boat sunk. Gordon held on to a plank until he was picked up, but lost everything except his shirt, pantaloons and four dollars change in his pocket. This misfortune has prevented Gordon from continuing his journey as intended, but since being at Mobile he has made a large collection of southern plants that he thinks will be saleable at New York. He hopes the revenue from this collection will allow him to continue his journey in the spring. He will probably go to the Santa Fe mountains or maybe to the Texan ranges. Assuming he chooses Santa Fe he will join the regular traders at St Louis and travel onwards under their protection. Dr. Torrey was a hundred miles from New York when Gordon was there, but wrote him a long letter, which Gordon received at New Orleans." It should be pointed out that his reference to not having gotten farther than Mobile had only to do with that particular trip because of course he had indeed been farther west the previous year. The Dictionary of British and Irish Botanists and Horticulturists lists an Alexander Gordon as a person who collected in the Rocky Mountains and South Carolina for nurseryman G. Charlwood and for Kew, and this would correspond with some of the above, but it records his dates as 1813- c. 1873, but an article in Magnolia, a publication of the Southern Garden History Society, says that "In 1827-28 Gordon made a 1,200 mile tour through America visiting nurserymen and gardens," which would seem to make those dates incorrect. The Magazine of Horticulture, Botany and All Useful Discoveries and Improvements dated May, 1849 has an article by Alexander Gordon, listed as botanical collector, Baton Rouge, Louisiana, in which he says: "A long period has elapsed since I raised my pen to address you. Since then I have traversed many a dreary waste, and many fertile regions, having twice, during the interim, extended my researches to the Rocky Mountains, California, Oregon, and New Mexico, on botanical pursuits..." A website of the Lewis and Clark Herbarium in reference to the species Atriplex gardneri, says: "Gardner’s saltbush, Atriplex gardneri, was mistakenly assigned the epithet gardneri by [Alfred] Moquin (in A.P. de Candolle & A.L.P.P. de Candolle, Prodr. 13(2): 114. 1849) when he proposed Obione gardneri. In fact, the plant Moquin saw was collected by Alexander Gordon who made his collection in 1843 while serving as botanist on the Sir William Drummond Stewart expedition along the Platte River of Nebraska while heading westward to the Wind River Range of Wyoming. Moquin simply misread the collector’s name." Moquin misread Gordon's handwriting and honored Gordon with the name of "gardneri"! According to botanical rules, the spelling of the name cannot be corrected. Lesquerella gordonii was collected in New Mexico in 1848 by Alexander Gordon. (ref. Atriplex gardneri, Ivesia gordonii, Lesquerella gordonii, Penstemon gordonii)
  • Gor'mania/gor'manii: after Martin Woodlock Gorman (1853-1926). The following is quoted from an appreciation by Mr. James Nelson in Rhodora, the Journal of the New England Botanical Club, March, 1927: "The death of M. W. German, which occurred in the Good Samaritan Hospital in Portland, on Oct. 7, 1926, removes from the scanty ranks of Oregon botanists the last of our picturesque trio of pioneer field-botanists -Howell, Cusick, and Gorman—men of a type now rapidly becoming extinct, who, without formal scientific preparation or academic position, were animated by an intense love of science, and who devoted their energies to a study of the native flora, often under the most adverse and discouraging conditions. It is idle to speculate on what, with better preparation, they might have accomplished. Howell’s Flora of Northwest America, considering the circumstances under which it was produced, raises its author almost to the rank of a genius, and forcibly calls to mind the work of that other tireless investigator and pioneer, Joao de Loureiro, in Cochin China; and during the years in which Howell was struggling with difficulties and discouragements of every sort, Mr. Gorman was his constant associate and faithful friend, whose modesty and self-effacement alone prevented him from claiming the title of collaborator. Martin Woodlock Gorman was born at Douglas in the Province of Ontario, Nov. 10, 1853, the son of Peter and Mary (Woodlock) Gorman. His father, a Canadian of Irish descent, was engaged in the lumber business in his younger days, but retired from active business after inheriting the paternal homestead at Douglas. His mother, a native of Ohio, was also of Irish descent. The young Martin seems to have inherited an interest in trees from his father; he was fond of telling his friends how he spent many youthful hours transplanting ail the species of trees he could find in the forest to a little plantation of his own -a sort of miniature “Arboretum." After securing a common-school education, he left home at the age of 16 to clerk in a store, and at 20 went to Montreal, where he spent eleven years in office work. During this time he occasionally attended the lectures of J. W. (afterward Sir William) Dawson, the geologist, at McGiIl University, and made the acquaintance of John Macoun (see macounii), then botanist of the Canadian Department of Agriculture. In 1885 he came to Portland, Oregon, where he was at first a clerk in a bank, but after a few years became traveling representative of a salmon-cannery operated by relatives of his in Alaska. This work gave him the longed-for opportunity to study the flora and fauna of the Pacific Coast. In his business capacity he made five trips to southeast Alaska between 1890 and 1895. In 1898 he joined the gold-seekers who were flocking to Dawson, and penetrated into the Yukon Territory to a point on the White River 200 miles above its confluence with the Yukon. Although wholly unprovided with facilities for pressing or drying specimens, "the call." as he often phrased it, "was strong," and he collected assiduously during the trip. Many of his specimens were lost in a tragic accident resulting in the drowning of his companion, and his own miraculous rescue by a wholly unexpected boat; but he brought out at least ten new species, and as great an authority as E. L. Greene declared that the results of this trip surpassed in value those of the fully-equipped Harriman Expedition. At the close of the Lewis and Clark Exposition, held in Portland in 1905, all the buildings were demolished except the Forestry Building, which was taken over by the city as a permanent memorial, being constructed wholly of Oregon timber in its native state, in the form of a gigantic Swiss chalet. Of this building Mr. Gorman was appointed Curator, and held the position until his death— which ensued as the result of pneumonia following a cold caught while raking leaves about the grounds. His little room in the building, filled to overflowing with books, papers and specimens, was the unfailing resort of all botanists who visited Portland. In his summer vacations he made collecting trips to all parts of Oregon and Washington; he has left a record of 17 of these trips, almost every one of which resulted in notable extensions of range or discovery of new species. He minutely botanized the environs of Portland, making a special study of the disappearance of native species under the encroachment of civilization; and to accompany him on one of these trips was a rare privilege, for he not only saw everything and detected the slightest change of environment, but had the happy faculty of pouring forth a running commentary of reminiscence and illustration, tinged with genial Irish wit, that made his society eagerly sought. He never married, but his kindly and unselfish disposition prevented him from developing into the classic old-bachelor type. His interest in humanity was unfailing, and his charity and tolerance seemed never to be exhausted. Much-abused as the word “gentleman” has been, it could with little exaggeration be literally applied to him; he represented the finest ideals of his race. He was wholly free from vanity or self-seeking, painfully modest as to his own attainments, always ready to subordinate his own judgment, and never indulging in harsh or carping criticism even of those whose views were most widely divergent from his. To the end of his life his botanical interest was chiefly directed toward the trees and shrubs; but he collected everything, and devoted a large part of his time to making determinations for his many correspondents. His long association with Thomas Howell made him an admirable commentator on the Flora of Northwest America; he had accompanied Howell on many of his expeditions, and was able to give detailed information as to time and place of collection of many of his species. His own large collection he never wholly reduced to order, but by the terms of his will it. becomes, along with his books and papers, the property of the University of Oregon." The genus Gormania was published in 1903 by Nathaniel Lord Britton. (ref. genus Gormania, Ranunculus gormanii)
  • Gorteria: named after David de Gorter (1717-1783), Dutch physician and botanist. He obtained his medical doctorate
      from the University of Gelderland in Harderwijk, at the age of 16 in 1734. His father, Johannes de Gorter, was a professor at the university. When Linnaeus came the following year to obtain his doctoral degree he was particularly impressed by David who was ten years younger. Linnaeus accompanied the youngster on a few collecting trips, and was much impressed. Some of the specimens they gathered are now at the Rijksherbarium in Leiden. In 1737 de Gorter received a doctorate in philosophy and then was appointed lecturer in 1742 and professor in 1743, remaining
    in this position for over a decade. While there de Gorter published the first of his floras, the Flora Gelro-Zutphanica, in 1745. He came to be an adherent of the Linnaean classification system and David published several regional floras which were faithful to the Linnaean system, including the Flora Gelro-Zutphanica, in 1745. Both father and son were offered positions as personal physicians to Elizabeth, Empress of Russia, and they moved to St. Petersburg in 1754. There David became a member of the Imperial Academy of Sciences, and also joined the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences and other academies and learned societies. In St Petersburg, de Gorter edited and published Stepan Krasheninnikov's last work, Flora Ingrica. While in Russia he collected local plants and remained there until 1764. His specimens from Russia are housed in the Linnaean herbarium in London. He was married in 1775. Most of the rest of his life was spent in Wijk bij Duurstede (near Utrecht) where he settled down to the life of a local physician. He produced another Dutch flora in 1781, Flora VII Provinciarum Belgii Foederati indigena, and the following year, Leer der plantkunde, which was an extensive description of the Linnaean doctrine and its 'natural orders'. De Gorter spent his last years in Zutphen, where he wrote his Flora of the Seven Provinces. The genus Gorteria was named for him by Linnaeus in 1759. (ref. genus Gorteria)
  • gossypi'na/gossypi'num: cottony, resembling cotton or Gossypium. (ref. Pyrrocoma uniflora var. gossypina, Eriogonum gossypinum)
  • Gossyp'ium: from Latin names used by Pliny for the cotton tree. The genus Gossypium was published in 1753 by Carl Linnaeus. (ref. genus Gossypium)
  • gougetia'num: named after Charles Joseph Gouget (1792-1875), French Army physician and author of "Essai sur la topographie medicale de la ville de Dí´le, sous-préfecture du Département du Jura." (ref. Limonium gougetianum)
  • gouin'ii: named for Dr. François-Marie-Gabriel Goüin (1818-1873), French naval surgeon and amateur plant collector. He was born in Merdrignac in Cötes-du-Nord, Bretagne, and graduated from  Rennes University. He joined the Navy in 1841 and served in West Africa and South Asia. He was also a participant of the Crimean War (1853-1856). He was a sanitary officer and was decorated by the Ottoman and French governments for his outstanding service in the cholera epidemic of 1855-1856. He was appointed director of the naval hospital at Vera Cruz following the French occupation of Mexico (1864-1867) and was part of the botanical research team of the French scientific mission and was particularly interested in collecting specimens of grasses endemic on the eastern coast of Mexico. He retired in 1867 to continue his botanical research in collaboration with the Museum d' Histoire Naturelle de Paris, and died from typhoid fever which he contracted from a patient. The genus Gouinia of grasses was named by Eugene Fournier in his honor in 1883. (ref. Panicum gouinii)
  • goulard'ii: named for Dr. Charles Prosper Goulard (1845-1894) who first found this taxon. He was born at Argentan in northwestern France and was educated at Caen High School and the seminary of Sées, where he became interested in natural history and soon thereafter was enamored with botany. He was particularly interested in Phanerogams, the Muscneae, the deaweeds (especially diatoms and the Desmidieae), made plantings around Falaise, Vire and Argantan, and discovered in 1867 Fabronia pusilla on the rocks of the grotto Saint-Ortaire Campeaux near Vire, the northernmost location for this Mediterranean species. While in the Navy he travelled extensively in 1868/69 and remained in South America for a time. He participated in the Franco-German War in 1870 and after hostilities were concluded he began medical studies in Montpelier and continued delving into natural history. By this time he had become a well-known bryologist, and in 1873 he explored the Pyrenees and in 1878 Corsica. He received his medical degree in 1879 and established himself as a doctor in Tinchebray, then health matters necessitated a move to the milder climate of Banyuls-sur-Mer in the Pyrenees-Orientales, where he worked in a laboratory of marine zoology and collected mosses and lichens around the area. He died in Saint-Germain-en-Laye. (ref. Hygrohypnum smithii var. goulardii)
  • gould'ii:named for American botanist and agrostologist Frank Walton Gould (1931-1981). He was a leading pasture specialist at Texas A & M University, until retiring as Distinguished Professor Emeritus in Grass Systematics. (ref. Elymus Xgouldii)
  • goveniana: named after James Robert Gowen (1783-1862), British horticulturist, Secretary and then Treasurer of
      the Horticultural Society, honorary member of the Lunacy Commission, Confidential secretary to three successive earls of Carnarvon, Fellow of the Geological Society, Director of the New Zealand Company, particularly interested in orchids and rhododendrons. "Cupressus goveniana ssp.goveniana was named “Gowen cypress” to commemorate the services to horticulture of James Robert Gowen." (Sargent, C. S. 1896. The silva of north America, Vol. X). The Cypress was found by Karl Theodor Hartweg (1812-1871), a German plant collector in California working at the
    behest of the Horticultural Society of London, and named by George Gordon who was also a member of the Horticultural Society. (ref. Callitropsis [formerly Cupressus] goveniana)
  • gow'enii: named after Hammond David Gowen (1946- ), volunteer at the Jepson Herbarium who has been involved in monitoring rare and unusual plants for the East Bay CNPS and is a co-contributor on the coming Jepson treatment of Eriastrum. (ref. Navarretia gowenii)
  • gra'cilens: probably the same as gracile.
  • gracilen'ta/gracilen'tum/gracilen'tus: slender. (ref. Mentzelia gracilenta, Trifolium gracilentum, Helianthus gracilentus, Lupinus gracilentus)
  • graciliflor'a: slender-flowered. (ref. Camissonia graciliflora)
  • gracil'ior: more slender. (ref. Carex gracilior, Erigeron pumilis var. gracilior)
  • gracil'ipes: slender-stalked (compare brevipes, crassipes, filipes, planipes). (ref. Eriogonum gracilipes)
  • gra'cilis: see gracile above. (ref. Arabis pulchra var. gracilis, Bouteloua gracilis, Cryptantha gracilis, Elatine gracilis, Lasthenia gracilis, Limnanthes gracilis, Madia gracilis, Microsteris gracilis, Nemacladus gracilis, Potentilla gracilis var. elmeri, Potentilla gracilis var. fastigiata, Setaria gracilis, Spartina gracilis)
  • gracil'lima/gracil'limum: most graceful or slender. (ref. Najas gracillima, Eriogonum gracillimum, Galium angustifolium ssp. gracillimum, Ribes aureum var. gracillimum)
  • grae'ca: Greek, Grecian. (ref. Malcolmia graeca)
  • gregar'ia: of or belonging to a herd or flock. (ref. Minuartia nuttallii var. gregaria)
  • gra'hamii: named for Edward Harrison Graham (1902-1966), American botanist and conservationist. He was born at
      New Brighton, Pennsylvania, and attended the University of Pittsburgh where he received a B.S. degree in 1927 and a Ph.D. in botany in 1932. In 1924 he collected plants in British Guiana, and also in Arizona, Colorado, and Utah and elsewhere. From 1929 to 1937 he was Assistant Curator of Botany at the Carnegie Museum in Pittsburgh and then joined the Soil Conservation Service of the U.S. Department of Agriculture, advancing from biologist, to chief of the division of biology, and finally to assistant administrator for international programs. In 1939 he was elected to the
    Washington Biologists’ Field Club. He was a lecturer in land management ecology in the Graduate School of the United States Department of Agriculture from 1942 to 1952, at Harvard University in 1949, and a Guggenheim Fellow in 1954. He represented the United States at numerous scientific conferences in Mexico, Venezuela, Denmark, France, Scotland, and Greece. JSTOR adds: “He was a member of the Washington Biologists' Field Club (1939), a lecturer at the Graduate School of the USDA (1942-1952) and also at Harvard University (1949). A leader in the conservation of natural resources, he was a consultant to the Nature Conservancy of Great Britain, and was elected President of the Soil Conservation Society of America.” He was also a member of the United States National Committee for the International Biological Program. He was the author of Legumes for erosion control and wildlife, The Land and Wildlife, The Natural principles of land use, Poisonous plants of Pennsylvania, and co-author of Water for America : the story of water conservation. He retired in 1964 at the age of 62. Following his retirement he was a consultant to the Ford Foundation and a senior associate of the Conservation Foundation in Washington. He died of pneumonia in 1966.  At the time of his death he was chairman of the Commission on Ecology of the International Union for Conservation of Nature and had been scheduled to become president of the Union later that year. (ref. Phlox grahamii)
  • gra'hamii: named after George John Graham (1803-1878). He was a British plant collector who was born in Brampton, Cumberland. He collected botanical material in Mexico from 1827 to 1829. Much of the material was later worked on at Kew by George Bentham, who named the taxon Salvia grahamii in his honor in 1830. Graham died at Ventnor on the Isle of Wight. (ref. Salvia grahamii)
  • gra'hamii: after James Duncan Graham (1799-1865). The following is a passage quoted from Appleton's Cyclopedia
      of American Biography found on the website of the US Corps of Topographical Engineers: "James Duncan Graham, topographical engineer, was born in Prince William County, Virginia, 4 April, 1799, and died in Boston, Massachusetts, 28 December 1865. He was graduated at the United States Military Academy in 1817, and became lieutenant of artillery. He was promoted several steps in this arm of the service, and employed on topographical duty, but it was not until 1829 that his specialty was recognized. He was then brevetted captain and afterward major, that he might
    enter the corps of topographical engineers, receiving the full commission of major in 1838. In 1839-40 he was astronomer of the surveying party that, in behalf of the United States, established the boundary-line between the latter and the then new Republic of Texas. In 1840 he was appointed commissioner for the survey and exploration of the northeast boundary of the United States, and was employed along the Maine and New York frontiers until 1843. In the same year he was ordered to duty as astronomer on the part of the United States for the joint demarcation of the boundary between the United States and the British provinces, under the treaty of Washington. He was thus employed during the Mexican war. On its conclusion he was brevetted lieutenant colonel, the commission reading, "for valuable and highly distinguished services, particularly on the boundary line between the United States and the provinces of Canada and New Brunswick." In 1850 Colonel Graham was engaged by the states of Maryland, Pennsylvania, and Delaware, to examine certain disputed questions regarding the intersection of the boundary line of those states. He made a thorough survey of the line originally made by Mason and Dixon, and published a voluminous report thereon. He was employed in the final settlement of the questions resulting from the War with Mexico, and during 1851 was United States astronomer in the survey of the boundary line between this country and Mexico. For the next ten years he was in charge of various harbor improvements on the northern and northwestern lakes, in which he discovered the existence of a lunar tide (1858-59). At the time of his death he was superintending engineer of the sea-walls in Boston harbor, and of the repairs of harbor works on the Atlantic coast from Maine to the capes of the Chesapeake. He was promoted to be colonel of the engineer corps, 1 June, 1863. He was a member of several scientific societies." (ref. Mammilaria grahamii)
  • gra'hamii: named for Scottish physician and botanist Robert Graham (1786-1845). He was born in Stirling to a father
      who was also a physician. He was educated first at Stirling Grammar School and then attended the University of Glasgowand and the University of Edinburgh where he graduated in 1806. He finished his MD two years later. He trained further at St Bartholomew's Hospital, London, where he qualified as a surgeon. He then returned to Scotland to practice at Glasgow Royal Infirmary 1812-1813 and 1816–1819. He began lecturing in botany at the University of Glasgow and had a major hand in the creation of the Glasgow Botanic Garden. He opened the largest palm house in
    Great Britain. He became the inaugural Chair of Botany there in 1818, moving to Edinburgh in 1820 to become Professor of Botany and Medicine at the University of Edinburgh, a position he held until 1845. He was also physician to the Royal Infirmary of Edinburgh and Regius Keeper of the Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh. In 1821 Graham was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society of Edinburgh. He served as President of the Royal College of Physicians of Edinburgh from 1840 to 1842. He campaigned on public health issues, particularly the combination of unsanitary conditions and overcrowding that led to the typhoid outbreak in Glasgow in 1818 and was a founder and the first President of the Botanical Society of Edinburgh (1836). He published a number of botanical papers, chiefly describing new species, in the 'Edinburgh New Philosophical Magazine,' Curtis's 'Botanical Magazine,' and Hooker's 'Companion.' He collected in Britain, mainly in Scotland, and in Ireland, and worked on a flora of Great Britain which remained incomplete at the time of his death at Coldoch in Perthshire after a long illness. (ref. Boechera grahamii)
  • gramin'ea/gramin'eus: resembling grass, grassy. (ref. Stellaria graminea, Chrysothamnus gramineus, Potamogeton gramineus)
  • graminifo'lia: with foliage like grass.
  • grana'tum: many-seeded. (ref. Punicum granatum)
  • grandiceph'alum: large-headed.
  • grand'iceps: large-headed.
  • grandiflor'a/grandiflor'um/grandiflor'us: large-flowered. (ref. Agoseris grandiflora, Collomia grandiflora, Heterotheca grandiflora, Kallstroemia grandiflora, Phacelia grandiflora, Linanthus grandiflorus, Linum grandiflorum, Lotus grandiflorus)
  • grandifo'lia: large-leaved. (ref. Frankenia grandifolia)
  • gran'dis: big, showy. (ref. Bromus grandis, Glyceria grandis, Orobanche californica ssp. grandis)
  • grantia'num/grant'ii: after botanist and computer designer George Barnard Grant (1849-1917).  A website called
      History of Computers provides the following: “[He] was born in Farmingdale, Gardiner, Maine, as the son of a Maine shipbuilder, descendant from families who came from Britain in 17th century. Grant attended Bridgton Academy in Maine, then studied for three terms at the Chandler Scientific School of Dartmouth College, and entered in 1869 the Lawrence Scientific School at Harvard, where he obtained his bachelor degree in engineering in 1873.” In 1876 he unveiled at the Philadelphia Centennial Fair a device called a ‘differential engine,’ designed to automatically
    calculate mathematical tables. His machine was eight feet wide, five feet wide and contained 15,000 moving parts, many of which were gears, and followed after the development of Charles Babbage's groundbreaking analytical engine. His design and construction of gears led him to become one of the founders of the gear industry in the United States, eventually founding the Lexington Gear Works, the Grant Gear Works, the Philadelphia Gear Works and the Boston Gear Works, the latter three of which are still operating. He also wrote several very successful books on the subject such as A treatise on gear wheels, A handbook on the teeth of gears, their curves, properties and practical construction, and Odontics, or, The Theory and Practice of the Teeth of Gears. His hobby however was botany. David Hollombe provided the following: "He was collecting on Mt. San Gorgonio on July 25, 1904 with his cousin, Walter Wheeler, and a guide, when Wheeler was struck and killed by lightning." There followed an incredibly-difficult descent of the mountain with Wheeler's burned and frozen body in the midst of almost continuous thunder- and hailstorms, a descent that was interrupted by a flood of thousands of tons of water and debris across the path ahead basically washing out the trail they were using. Grant collected the type specimen of mountain carpet clover on Mt. San Gorgonio only two days before Wheeler was killed.” In the 1900’s he settled in California and began the pursuit that caused his name to be on plants like Trifolium monanthum ssp. grantianum and Saltugilia splendens ssp. grantii (Photo credit: History of Computers). (ref. Ribes grantii, Saltugilia splendens ssp. grantii, Trifolium monanthum var. grantianum)
  • grantia'nus: after Adele Gerard Grant (née Lewis) (1881-1969), American botanist specializing in Mimulus. She was born in Carpenteria, California, graduated with a B.Sc. degree from the University of California, Berkeley and an M.Sc. and Ph.D. from the Henry Shaw School of Botany at Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri. While there served as a teaching fellow and was associated with the Missouri Botanical Garden. She taught at Cornell University and then moved to South Africa in 1925 where she lived for five years, during which time she visited Rhodesia, the Belgian Congo, Kenya and Mozambique. She taught botany for several years at Huguenot College in Wellington, South Africa. JSTOR adds: “Working with botanists at the University of Cape Town's Bolus Herbarium she published little at the time but developed an important herbarium. On her return to the USA in 1930 Grant began to work at the Missouri Botanical Garden, but soon returned to California with her collection to study the material at the University of California, Los Angeles. In 1969, when the Missouri Botanical Garden was recognised as the official centre for the study of African plants in North America, the collection was moved there for study. Grant continued to teach, working at San Francisco State College, the University of Southern California and at George Pepperdine College, and on retiring became Supervisor of Science for the Los Angeles County Schools. As a botanist she published monographs of the genera Mimulus and Hemimeris L., but was also interested in ornithology and marine life.” She died at the age of 87 and is buried in Carpenteria, California. (ref. Mimulus grantianus)
  • grant'ii: see grantianum above. (ref. Gilia splendens ssp. grantii, Trifolium monanthum var. grantii)
  • Graphephor'um: probably from grapheion, "paint brush, pencil or stylus," and phoros, "bearing, carrying," for the hairy appendage formed by the extension of the rachilla of the spiklet. The genus Graphephorum was published by Nicaise Augustin Desvaux in 1810. (ref. genus Graphephorum)
  • Gratio'la: from the Latin gratia, "agreeableness, pleasantness, loveliness," in reference to its medicinal qualities of these herbs. The genus Gratiola was published in 1753 by Carl Linnaeus. (ref. genus Gratiola)
  • gratis'sima: very pleasing. (ref. Rosa woodsii ssp. gratissima)
  • gra'tus: pleasant or pleasing.
  • graveo'lens: strong or ill-smelling (compare beneolens, suaveolens). (ref. Apium graveolens, Sanicula graveolens)
  • graya'na/graya'num: see following entry. (ref. Galium grayanum, Orobanche californica ssp. grayana)
  • gray'i/Gray'ia: named after Asa Gray (1810-1888), one of the most eminent American botanists and professor at
      Harvard, who played an important part in the identification of many Sierra wildflowers, and whose guides in Yosemite were John Muir and Galen Clark. He graduated from Fairfield Medical College with an M.D. and opened a medical office in Bridgewater, New York, where he had served an apprenticeship with a doctor, yet he never truly practiced medicine. Botany was more important. He taught chemistry, mineralogy, and botany at Bartlett's High School in Utica, New York, and at Fairfield Medical School, and later became an assistant to John Torrey at the College of Physicians
    and Surgeons in New York City. In 1835 he left his position with Torrey (although they became lifelong friends) and the following year became curator and librarian at the Lyceum of Natural History in New York, now called the New York Academy of Sciences. In 1838, Gray became the very first permanent paid professor at the newly founded University of Michigan and then was appointed Professor of Botany and Zoology, and then was sent to Europe to contact botanists and botanical institutions there, visiting Glasgow, London, Paris, Genoa, Rome, Florence, Venice, Bologna, Padua, Trieste, and Vienna, and meeting Sir William Hooker and many others along the way. In 1842 he began his career at Harvard. Around that time he met George Engelmann who became a lifelong friend and valued plant collector for Gray. He asked Wilhelm Nikolaus Suksdorf, the German immigrant who had become a specialist in the flora of the Pacific Northwest, to come to Harvard to be his assistant. Over the intervening decades, he travelled, worked on the herbarium collection, corresponded widely, was elected as a foreign member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, was one of the original 50 founding members of the National Academy of Sciences, was president of the American Association for the Advancement of Science in 1872 and of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences 1863–1873, a regent at the Smithsonian Institution in 1874–1888 and a foreign member of the Royal Society of London in 1873, and donated 200,000 plant specimens and 2,200 books to Harvard, in effect creating the botany department there. In 1872 he resigned his professorship to devote himself full time to botanical work and to finish his Flora of North America.  More than 10,000 letters to Gray have been preserved from hundreds of correspondents including John Torrey, George Engelmann, Charles Darwin and Muir, and this was one of his greatest accomplishments, the ability and desire to create a vast network of scientists who communicated with each other and shared their work with each other.  Gray made st least two other trips to Europe to collaborate with leading European scientists of the era such as George Bentham and William Henry Harvey, as well as trips to the southern and western United States. He also built an extensive network of specimen collectors. His life's goal was to describe all known plants of the United States, a task that no one man could ever achieve, but he dominated American botany like no other, and was honored by the naming of the genus Grayia by Sir William Hooker in Glasgow. One of his most popular books was Manual of the Botany of the Northern United States, from New England to Wisconsin and South to Ohio and Pennsylvania Inclusive, referred to now simply as Gray’s Manual, but he wrote many others including Gray’s School and Field Book of Botany, Synoptical Flora of North America, How Plants Grow, How Plants Behave and Darwiniana. Many of the most significant plant collectors who scoured the West for new species sent their samples back to Asa Gray at Harvard for identification. To say that he was a giant in the field of botany is a gross understatement. The genus Grayia was published in 1841 by William Jackson Turner and George Walker Arnott Walker. (ref. genus Grayia)
  • great'ae: after Louis Agustin Greata (1857-1911), a plant collector of significant repute acknowledged as such by no less a figure than Harvey Monroe Hall. He was born in London, was educated in Paris, and came to the U.S. in 1870, and as of 1880 was a railroad clerk in Louisville, Ky. He had moved on to San Francisco by 1884 and arrived in Los Angeles around 1894, becoming secretary to an organization of hardware dealers called the Pacific Coast Hardware and Metal Association. He was friends with Hall and went on collecting trips with him. [Info from D. Hollombe]  Jaeger's Desert Wildflowers states that Greata "...with Dr. H.M. Hall made a lengthy trip in the early 1900's in search of California Compositae, travelling with a horse named Molly and a buckboard fitted with water casks and an imbrella." He especially collected around the Los Angeles area. In the Kurtz Street Marsh, a freshwater marsh that existed a hundred years ago near downtown Los Angeles, he collected a sample of Helenium puberulum which was housed at the Herbarium of the Southern California Academy of Sciences, closed sometime in the 1990's. [Info from an online article by Robert van de Hoek about Los Angeles County naturalist Mickey Long]  That specimen is now at the Herbarium of the Rancho Santa Ana Botanical Garden. He was a member of the Academy of Sciences and was for many years Secretary of the Botanical Section and in charge of the Herbarium. He had two species named for him, Aster greatae and Salvia greatae, and in both cases the specific name was originally published as greatai but later corrected to greatae. Normally, the specific ending -ae indicates that it commemorates the name of a woman, but the rule is that if the name of the person being so honored ends in an 'a', then it takes a final 'e.' The pronunciation of Greata's name is something that has caused me difficulty. Akrigg & Akrigg's British Columbia Place Names apparently gives the pronunciation as GREET-a, but a representative of the Cedar Creek/Greata Ranch Vineyards in British Columbia told me that they pronounce the name as GRET-a. Since I know of no connection between Louis Greata and this Greata Ranch, the foregoing may be inconsequential. I have heard other people pronounce it as GRATE-a. Even if it were an English word, its pronunciation would be problematic given the various soundings of the vowel combination 'ea' as in 'mean,' 'pear,' 'great,' 'heard,' 'heart' and 'leapt,' but in the case of the overwhelming majority of English words, the 'ea' vowel combination is pronounced as a long 'e' as in 'read.' Of course, as a personal name its pronunciation did not necessarily conform to any rules. I can't say definitively how he pronounced his name unless I am contacted by a relative. The 'ae' ending should be pronounced as 'ee,' so the possibilities for the pronunciation of this specific name would appear to be 'GREET-ee,' 'GRET-ee,' or 'GRATE-ee.' I have opted for 'GREET-ee.' If anyone can shed any further light on this question, please let me know. (Obituary by Theodore Payne in Bulletin of the Southern California Academy of Sciences). (ref. Symphyotrichum greatae, Salvia greatae)
  • green'ei: after Edward Lee Greene (1843-1915), a churchman who went from being a Baptist to an Episcopalean
      and finally converted to Catholicism. During much of this time he assiduously collected plants and acquired as much or more field knowledge than any other worker of his day. Like Marcus Jones, who despised him (see jonesii), he was a believer in the western botanical establishment and supported it in many of its conflicts with Asa Gray and the easterners, with whom he had numerous verbal battles. He began the first botanical garden in the west after he became the first professor of botany at the University of California at Berkeley, and later taught at Catholic
    University of America in Washington, D.C. and was an associate in botany at the Smithsonian Institution from 1904 to 1909. He collected primarily in western states such as Colorado, New Mexico and California. One of his controversial views was that research on plant names should extend back as early as possible to preserve the absolute first name a plant had ever been given, and this seems to have been a precursor of our contemporary situation where plants have often been renamed in favor of an earlier recognized name. He came at botany from an essentially religious point of view, that all plant species had been created individually by God and that there could be no variations or changes in species such as hybrids evolving into new species. He was a splitter, and applied this practice to many genera, not the least of which was Eschscholzia. Of the 116 new species, subspecies and varieties of this genus he named, only 8 are still recognized. It was said that he could collect a plant, name it a new species, then collect from the same plant later in the season and name it another new species! Also like Jones, he did not shun controversy, and once, after having been locked out of his church for reasons that I am unclear on, he chopped the door down with an axe and delivered his sermon. Karen Nilsson's quote from Wilson Linn Jepson (referring to Greene's style of solving problems) seems appropriate to end this paragraph: "He rode it at full-tilt like a medieval knight. The conflict was short, sharp, decisive, and often highly interesting." Marcus Jones would likely have had a different point of view. (ref. Brickellia greenei, Dudleya greenei, Helianthemum greenei, Physalis greenei, Tuctoria greenei)
  • Greeneochar'is: for Edward Lee Greene (1843-1915), see above entry. This is a former genus name which may be resurrected in the future. The genus Greeneocharis was published in 1899 by Robert Louis August Maximilian Gürke and Hermann August Theodore Harms.
  • gregar'ia: from Latin gregis, "a flock," and thus meaning "of or belonging to a herd or flock, or being one of a large group" or by extension to a population of another sort. A.A. Heller in a 1903 Bulletin of the Southern California of Sciences wrote about this taxon: "It is abundant, growing in dense mats, often carpeting the ground in suitable situations." (ref. Minuartia nuttallii var. gregaria)
  • greg'gii: named after Josiah Gregg (1806-1850), frontier trader, merchant, explorer, naturalist and author, who
      sent many specimens to Dr. George Engelman in St. Louis from little known areas of the southwest. In 1849 he travelled to the northwestern corner of California where he hoped to find gold, and continued his somewhat erratic quests as a naturalist. He was born in Tennessee and moved with his family to Missouri at the age of six. By the time he was 18 he had become a school teacher. He studied law and surveying but his health declined from consumption and chronic dyspepsia, a situation which caused him to travel with a merchant caravan to Santa Fe, New
    Mexico in 1831. Over the following years he became a bookkeeper, merchant and wagonmaster. He brought the first printing press to New Mexico. He crossed the plains numerous times, went into Mexico and survived indian attacks. All the time he had been observing and taking notes about the natural history and culture of the areas he visited and he eventually published the two-volume Commerce of the Prairies, including commentary on the geography, botany, geology, and culture of New Mexico, the loacal people, and Indian artifacts. He produced a map of the Santa Fe Trail which was the most detailed at the time. In 1845 he began studying medicine and graduated from the University of Louisville, and actually started practicing a few years later, but it was never his main occupation. He collected many previously undescribed plants on his merchant trips, and about eighty plants were originally assigned the name of greggii, of which Ceanothus greggii might be the most prominent. He took a trip to Mexico between 1848 and 1849 with Friedrich Adolph Wislizenus and sent specimens back to his friend George Engelmann in St. Louis. In 1849 he was called by the California gold rush travelling to San Francisco and visitng placer mines along the Trinity River. He led a group of miners from north of Helena to try to reach the Pacific on a trip that Indians had said was an eight-day journey but which actually took six weeks. They did at last find what they called Trinity Bay but which came to be known as Humboldt Bay, but in attempting to find a way back to San Francisco they encountered much rough country, and their provisions and ammunition were in short supply.  He was apparently not popular with those he associated with, and although the details are not clear he reportedly died at the early age of 44 of a fall from his mount due to starvation on 25 February 1850. (ref. Acacia greggii, Ceanothus greggii var. perplexans, Ceanothus greggii var. vestitus)
  • greg'orii: my information at this point is that this name was given (and the species described) by the plant collector
      Spencer Le Marchant Moore in 1894 in honor of his colleague John Walter Gregory (1864-1932), the Scottish explorer, stratigrapher, invertebrate paleontologist and geomorphologist, Appointed to the British Natural History Museum in 1887 as a geologist and paleontologist, Gregory travelled in North America and the West Indies and in 1892-1893 explored the Great Rift Valley which is where he collected the type specimen of Thunbergia gregorii.  Moore (born 1850) was a botanical explorer and taxonomic cytologist who was born
    in Hampstead, England, worked at the Royal Botanic Gardens from about 1870 to 1879, wrote a number of botanical papers, and then worked in an unofficial capacity at the Natural History Museum from 1896 until his death in 1932.  It was probably because the two men were both associated with this institution that they became acquainted, and Moore worked on collections of material, including those which Gregory brought back from Africa.  Gregory was the first professor of geology at the University of Melbourne and also held the position of Director of the Geological Survey of Victoria (1901-1904).  He resigned from those positions in 1904, and accepted a position at the University of Glasgow.  He was the first professor of geology at the University of Glasgow and held the Chair of Geology there for 25 years, until 1929. Gregory undertook expeditions in Libya, Angola, the Indian Himalayas and the East African Rift Valley, which he was the first to recognize as a graben.  He was originally chosen as the Scientific Director for Robert Falcon Scott's Antarctic expedition, but resigned because he had understood his position to be in overall command and not just as the leader of the scientific staff.  In 1896 he was with Lord Conway on a crossing of Spitzbergen.  He was twice consulted regarding possible African locations for a Jewish homeland, and wrote over 300 papers on a variety of geological subjects. (ref. Thunbergia gregorii)
  • Greniera:named for Jean Charles Marie Grenier (1808-1975), French botanist and naturalist who was a professor
      to the Faculty of Sciences at the University of Franche-Comté at Besançon. He received a doctorate in medicine in 1844 followed by another degree in the sciences in 1844. At Besançon, he taught classes in natural history, zoology and botany, being appointed doyen of the school in 1869. He is credited with the description of hundreds of botanical species, many of them in collaboration with Dominique Alexandre Godron (1807–1880), a professor of natural history at Nancy. With Prof. Godron he published a three-volume work on French flora called Flore de France (1848–
    1856). Grenier was also author of Flore de la châine jurassique (Flora of the Jura Mountain chain) (1865–69). The genus Greniera was published in 1845 by Jacques Étienne Gay. (ref. genus Greniera)
  • Grevil'lea: named for Charles Francis Greville (1749-1809), British horticulturist, antiquarian, collector, politician,
      and one of the founders of what is now the Royal Horticultural Society. He was the second son of Francis Greville, 1st Earl of Warwick and was educated at the University of Edinburgh from 1764 to 1767. He had a significant collection of classical and renaissance artwork and of minerals and precious stones, one of his special interests and later purchased via Act of Parliament for the British Museum. He was a close friend of Sir Joseph Banks and accompanied him at the organizing meeting of the Society for the Improvement of Horticulture, which later became the
    Royal Horticultural Society. He served as a Lord of the Treasury from 1780 to 1782, as Treasurer of the Household from 1783 to 1784 and as Vice-Chamberlain of the Household from 1794 to 1804 and was sworn of the Privy Council in 1783. He indulged his passion for gardening in a large garden provided with glasshouses in which he grew many rare tropical plants, aided by his connection with Banks, and managed to coax Vanilla planifolia to flower for the first time under glass, in the winter of 1806-07. His contributions to the herbarium assembled by Sir James Edward Smith are preserved by the Linnaean Society of London. He never married but took a woman by the name of Emma Hamilton as mistress for several years until he arranged her marriage to his uncle. The Australasian genus Grevillea was named in his honor by the British botanist Robert Brown in 1809, the year of his death. (ref. genus Grevillea)
  • grevillea'num: named for Robert Kaye Greville (1794-1866), English mycologist, bryologist, botanist, and an accomplished artist and natural history illustrator. He was born at Bishop Auckland, Durham, but brought up in Derbyshire when his father became Rector of the small village of Edlaston and its nearby hamlet of Wyaston. From an early age he had a great interest in the natural world, but thinking he would need an income of some sort he studied medicine. Once he realized that that was not the case, he gave up medicine and turned instead to botany. In 1823 he began the illustration and publishing of the journal Scottish cryptogamic flora and also contributed other articles in the field. He received a doctorate from the University of Glasgow in 1824 and gave a large number of lectures in the natural sciences and built up collections that were bought by the University of Edinburgh. In 1828 he was honored by the naming of a mountain in Queensland, Australia as Mount Greville, which is now part of Moogerah Peaks National Park. Moogerah is the aboriginal name for the mountain and the area around it. In the 1830s he was living in Edinburgh and in 1839-1840 he served as President of the Botanical Society of Edinburgh for the first time. In 1840 he was one of the four vice-presidents at the World's Anti-Slavery Convention at Freemason's Hall in London. Abolitionism had long been one of his major interests. He was honorary secretary of the Biological Society and a Fellow of the Royal Society of Edinburgh, and an honorary member of the Royal Irish Academy and the Howard Society as well as being a corresponding member of natural history societies including Brussels, Paris, Leipzig and Philadelphia. In 1865–66 Greville served as President of the Botanical Society of Edinburgh for the second and last time. He died at his home, Ormelie Villa, in Murrayfield, Edinburgh. (ref. Dicranella grevilleanum)
  • grif'finii: after ecologist and oak authority James Richard Griffin (1931- ). Griffin received a Ph.D. in botany from UC Berkeley in 1962 and worked from 1967 until his retirement in 1992 as a research ecologist at the Hastings Natural History Reservation, a Biological Field Station of the University of California, Museum of Vertebrate Zoology and Natural Reserve System in Monterey County. He was also resident manager there from 1982 to 1988. In 1995 he authored a Flora of Hastings Reservation based on over 3000 specimens preserved by him and kept in the Hastings herbarium. He was also co-author in 1972 with William Critchfield of the book Distribution of Forest Trees in California, a publication of the USFS. One of his greatest qualities was his ability and willingness to be a mentor for younger scientists, many of whom have carried on his work. (ref. Campanula griffinii)
  • griffithi'anum: named for John Wynne Griffith (1763-1834), Welsh politician born in Garn, Henllan, Denbigh, Wales. He served as a Member of Parliament (MP) for Denbigh Boroughs from 1818 to 1826. He was also an amateur lichenologist with a particular interest in mycology. He was married and had ten children. (ref. Oedipodium griffithii)
  • Gri'maldia: named for Giovanni Gabriello Grimaldi (1757-1837), Italian clergyman and naturalist, and one of the people to whom has been attributed the name Fibonacci, which refers to the sequence of numbers in which each number is the sum of the previous two. He was born in Naples and was placed by his religious parents into the college of Monte Oliveto and ordained a priest in Bologna. He was particularly interested in the physical sciences and was assigned by Grand Duke Leopold I to teach those subjects in Florence. He remained there for several years then went with the superior of the Order to visit monasteries under the office of secretary general. In 1790 he accepted the position of chair of physics for the Republic of Lucca, one of the historic states in central Italy, which he regarded for the rest of his life as his homeland, rebuffing attempts of Russian Tsar Paul I to establish him as a professor in Vilnius. He was elected as permanent secretary of the Accademia di Lucca and was declared a professor emeritus in 1825. The genus Grimaldia was published in 1805 by Franz von Paula von Schrank.(ref. genus Grimaldia)
  • Grim'mia: named for German physician and botanist Johann Friedrich Karl Grimm (1737-1821). He was born in Eisenach and studied medicine in Gottingen with Albrecht von Haller, becoming a doctor in 1758. He practiced first in his hometown and then moved to Gotha as chief physician of the Duke of Saxony-Gotha-Altenburg. One of his major works was a 4-volume translation of the writings of the physician Hippocrates. He made explorations through Germany, France, England, Holland, and the Prussian states, but it is unclear to me whether he was investigating diseases or flor. He did study the flora of Eisenach and described numerous plant species. He was well respected in his time for his humanity and his medical knowledge, and the botanical community paid tribute to him by honoring him with the name Grimmia for a genus of mosses. The Swiss botanist Samuel Élisée von Bridel dedicated to him Volume II of the Muscologia Recentiorum. He died at the age of 85 in Gotha. The genus Grimmia was published in 1801 by Johann Hedwig. (ref. genus Grimmia)
  • Grinde'lia: named for David Hieronymus Grindel (1776-1836), born Dāvids Hieronīms Grindelis, a Latvian
      pharmacologist, physician, chemist, botanist, author of textbooks on physics and professor of chemistry and pharmacy at the University of Tartu in Estonia. Grindel attended school in Riga and also received private tutoring. He studied botany and medicine at the University of Jena from 1795 to 1797 and then returned to Riga. In 1800, he was the first Latvian in Saint Petersburg to pass his exams as a pharmacist and chemist, and in 1802 the University of Jena awarded him a doctorate. Establishing himself as a pharmacist, with his teacher and mentor Johann Gottlieb Struve he
    founded the Riga Pharmacist and Chemist Association in 1803. He returned to Tartu in Estonia in 1804 where he became professor of chemistry and pharmacy and rector of the University. He gave up his professorship in 1814 and took over the pharmacy in Riga that he had owned previously. His thoughts turned back to medicine and from 1820 to 1823 he studied to become a doctor at the University of Tartu while at the same time giving lectures in chemistry. He began practicing in Riga in 1823 and the next year became Riga district doctor. From 1807 he was a corresponding member of the Academy of Sciences and the Academy of Medicine and Surgery in St. Petersburg. The genus Grindelia was published in 1807 by Carl Ludwig Willdenow. (ref. genus Grindelia)
  • grindelio'ides: like or having the form of genus Grindelia.
  • grinnel'lii: not named as is often thought for the 19th/20th century University of California zoologist Joseph
      Grinnell (1877-1939) whose specialty was the fauna of the San Bernardino Mts but rather after his brother, the entomologist Fordyce Grinnell, Jr. (1882-1943), who collected the species in 1903. He was born at Pine Ridge Indian Agency, South Dakota, and was educated at Stanford University. He was assistant curator of entomology at the Southwest Museum from 1916-1917, the founder of the Lorquin Natural History Club, and an early member of the Southern California Academy of Sciences. He published numerous papers in such journals as the Entomological News, Canadian
    Entomologist, Journal of Entomology and Zoology, Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society, Journal of the New York Entomological Society, Lorquinia and the Bulletin of the Southern California Academy of Sciences. The Lorquin Natural history Club was founded in honor of the 19th-century French entomologist Pierre Lorquin, who worked in California during the gold rush years and discovered a butterfly that became known as Lorquin's admiral, among other species. (ref. Penstemon grinnellii var. grinnellii, Penstemon grinnellii var. scrophularioides
  • gris'ea/gris'eus: gray. (ref. Castilleja grisea, Phacelia grisea, Viola pinetorum ssp. grisea, Ceanothus griseus)
  • griset'ae: named for Ione Agnes Walker (Mrs. Charles Albert Griset) (1885-1961). She was born and raised, and died, in California. (ref. Lupinus ione-grisetae)
  • griset'ae: named for Louise Ilene Griset (Mrs. Pat Paul Bucaria) (1908-1966), daughter of Ione Agnes Walker. Her husband's occupation is listed in 1940 as barber. Louise died in Saratoga, Santa Clara County, California. Both this species and the one previously listed were named by C.P. Smith. (ref. Lupinus louise-grisetae)
  • groenland'ica: of or referring to Greenland. (ref. Pedicularis groenlandica)
  • gross'heimii: named after Ukraininan  botanist Alexander Alfonsovich Grossheim (1888-1948) who was an expert on
      the flora of the Caucasus. He was born in Lichovka in Dnipropetrovsk Oblast, and after graduating from the University of Moscow with a doctorate in 1912, he became the director of the Azerbaijan Institute of Botany. In 1929 he relocated to the Tiflis (Tbilisi) Botanic Garden in Georgia, carrying out plant collecting expeditions. Between then and 1924 he recorded almost six thousand species of plants and published his Flora Kavkaza (Flora of the Caucasus). In 1939 he began a second volume. In 1946, Grossheim was appointed curator of the Caucasian Herbarium at the Komarov
    Botanical Institute in Leningrad (Saint Petersburg), and also director of the Department of Plant Systematics and Morphology at St. Petersburg University. When he died in 1948, he was still working on the second edition of his Flora Kavkaza, which was continued by his colleague Andrej Fedorov. The genus Grossheimia was named in his honour in 1945 by Dmitri Ivanovich Sosnowsky and Armen Leonovich Takhtajan. (ref. Vicia cracca var. grossheimii)
  • gros'sos: very large.
  • grossulariifo'lia: with leaves like genus Grossularia. (ref. Sphaeralcea grossulariifolia)
  • grossulario'ides: like the gooseberries. (ref. Pelargonium grossularioides)
  • gruin'us: resembling a crane.
  • Gru'sonia: named for Hermann August Jacques Gruson (1821-1895), German engineer, inventor, entrepreneur,
      and privy councillor who had a particular interest in the Cactaceae, which is the family of the genus Grusonia, published by Heinrich Gustav Reichenbach in 1919. Gruson was born in Magdeburg, Germany. After attending lower school and doing military service, he studied at the University of Berlin, devoting himself to the natural sciences and mathematics. He worked in an engineering firm for five years and became familiar with mechanical engineering, and at the same time began to indulge his passion for tropical and subtropical botany. From 1843 to 1851 he
    worked for the Berlin-Hamburg Railway and then worked at an iron foundry in Berlin for several years. In 1854 he became first technical director of the United Hamburg-Magdeburg Steamship Company, and improved the strength of cast iron to the extent that products from the Gruson plants became a well known brand. In years to come he became very involved with producing products for the German military such as armored towers and rotating turrets for tanks. His company was eventually acquired by the Krupp company. He continued to study the sciences and he carried on successful work as a botanist. He owned the largest cactus collection in Europe. With his death he donated his extensive plant collection and a large amount of money to the city of Magdeburg. In 1896, the Gruson greenhouses contained a collection of many rare, now endangered exotic plants which were made accessible to the people of Magdeburg. The genus Grusonia was published in 1896 by F. Reichenbach and Karl Moritz Schumann. (ref. genus Grusonia)
  • Gruvel'ia: named for a French physician named Gruvel (c.1749?-1816?) who translated Juan Ignacio Molina’s Saggio sulla storia naturale de Chili. (ref. genus Gruvelia)
  • gryposep'ala: from the Greek grypo, "curved, hooked," and sepala, "sepal." (ref. Agrimonia gryposepala)
  • guadalupen'sis: of or from Guadalupe Mountain. (ref. Lupinus guadalupensis, Penstemon guadalupensis)
  • Guembel'ia: named after German bryologist Wilhelm Teodor Gümbel (1812-1858), born in Dannenfels in the Rhineland-Palatinate region of Germany. One of is younger brothers was the geologist Karl Wilhelm von Gümbel, and he had seven other brothers. His father was a royal district forester. He studied theology at Heidelberg, then technology at the University of Würzburg and natural sciences in Munich, and from 1837 taught classes in natural sciences, agriculture and technology at the vocational school in Zweibrücken. He also taught mathematics at the Latin school in Zweibrücken. At this time, his interest in botany deepened, in particular, the morphological aspects of botany. He met and became friends with the bryologist Philipp Bruch and because of this association began concentrating on the study of mosses. In 1843 he relocated as a teacher of natural sciences to the vocational school in Landau, where in 1853 he was named rector of the institution. In 1853 he was also elected a member of the German Academy of Sciences Leopoldina. He was a co-founder and board member of the nature research and conservation association Pollichia, and was co-author along with Philipp Bruch and Wilhelm Philippe Schimper of the book Bryologia europaea. He died in Landau in the Palatinate. The botanical genus Guembelia was named after him by Georg Ernst Ludwig Hampe in 1846. (ref. genus Guembelia)
  • guepin'ii: named for French mycologist and botanist Jean Pierre Guépin (1779-1858). He was born in Angers and received a doctorate in medicine. He practiced as a physician and then taught medicine and pharmacy at a school there, becoming director for sever years. In 1830 he published the first volume of his monograph on the flora of Maine and Loire. He died in Angers and his herbarium is currently divided between the University of Caen and the Paris Museum of Natural History. (ref. Tortula guepinii)
  • guggolzior'um: after Jack Guggolz (1917-2001), an avid birder and a long time member of Madrone Audubon and the Redwood Region Ornithological Society, and Betty L. Sennett Lovell Guggolz (c. 1924- ). The Guggolzes were also long time members of the Milo Baker chapter of the California Native Plant Society and monitored two wild populations of yellow larkspur (Delphineum luteum) for over twenty years. The following is quoted from the newsletter of the Milo Baker CNPS chapter: "Jack had a career as a research chemist for the USDA until he retired in 1972 and moved to Cloverdale. The rigorous scientific approach that he used in the laboratory served him well as he pursued his interest in the California flora and fauna. At the memorial service, Dr. Mike Parmeter remembered Jack as a knowledgeable birder and he also talked about Jack's museum quality collections of shells and insects, all accurately classified. These collections are now at the U.C. Berkeley and Sonoma State University. In the early '70's Jack's interests turned from birds to plants and he naturally became active in the California Native Plant Society. In the 1970's, he served on the Board of the State organization. Jack was not a charter member of the Milo Baker Chapter, but certainly was among the first to join and was one of the first treasurers. He was the third president, serving in 1976 and 1977. At that time, he led many field trips, especially to the Warm Springs Dam area where he did a lot of botany field work before the dam was built. He served on the board in many capacities for 27 years--most of the life of the chapter. He and Betty were the Rare Plant and Conservation committee for most of their 17 years together. His wisdom and knowledge will be missed. Jack grew up on a farm near Lodi and loved plants all his life. His Cloverdale garden was full of CA native plants that he had grown from seeds or cuttings. Every year he grew many plants to contribute to the plant sale." (ref. Harmonia guggolziorum)
  • Guillemin'ea: after Jean Baptiste Antoine Guillemin (1796-1842), a French botanist and author. He began working in a notary's office and then in 1814 went to Geneva to study under Augustine Pyrame de Candolle, botanist father of the great Alphonse de Candolle. In 1820 he went to Paris and worked in the library and herbarium of botanist Benjamin Delessert. He began work at the National Museum of Natural History in 1827 and received a medical degree in 1832. He succeeded Adolphe Brongniart as an assistant naturalist in the botany department. In 1838 he led a botanical expedition to Brazil to study the horticulture of tea. The genus Guilleminea was published by Nöel Martin Joseph de Necker in 1790. (ref. genus Guilleminiea)
  • Guillen'ia: named after Father Clemente Guillen de Castro (1677/1678-1748), a Mexican Jesuit missionary. The genus Guillenia was published in 1906 by Edward Lee Greene. (ref. genus Guillenia)
  • guiradon'is: Thanks to David Hollombe for some of the following information: This specific epithet was named after José Juan Francisco de Jesús ('Frank' or 'Pancho') Guirado (1840-1886), brother-in-law to California Governor John G. Downey who appointed him as assistant to William Henry Brewer on the State Geological Survey. He had become a U.S. citizen with the transfer of sovereignty in 1848. Juan was the assistant lighthouse keeper at Point Concepción when he was commissioned a 1st Lieutenant August 16, 1861, and joined Company B, 1st California Cavalry, at the Presidio of San Francisco, September 11, 1861.  He later left to accept a commission as 1st lieutenant in the 1st California Volunteer Cavalry when the Civil War began, and accompanied the California Column on its march across the Mojave and Sonoran Deserts to drive the Confederates back into Texas. He was appointed aide-de-camp to the staff of Brigadier General Joseph R. West on April 26, 1864, and was mustered out of the California Volunteers at Fort Union, New Mexico Territory, September 30, 1864. He was transferred to Little Rock, Arkansas, where he joined Company L, 11th Missouri Cavalry and then mustered out at New Orleans, Louisiana, July 27, 1865. He may have later been a policeman in Los Angeles where he was born and died. He married Ester Sepúlveda and had three children. (ref. Solidago guiradonis)
  • Guizo'tia: named for Francois Pierre Guillaume Guizot (1787-1874), a French historian, orator and statesman who
      was a dominant figure in French politics prior to the Revolution of 1848, opposed the attempt by King Charles X to usurp legislative power, and worked to sustain a constitutional monarchy following the July Revolution of 1830. In 1794 when François Guizot was 6, his father was executed on the scaffold at Nîmes during the Reign of Terror. He was educated in Geneva and arrived in Paris in 1805, entering into the position of tutor for the family of the former Swiss minister in France. Over the next few years he wrote a review of François-René de
    Chateaubriand's Martyrs, which won Chateaubriand's approbation and thanks, and he continued to contribute largely to the periodical press. In 1812 he published a translation of Edward Gibbon's The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire. In 1814 he was selected to serve the government of King Louis XVIII, in the capacity of secretary-general of the ministry of the interior, but resigned upon the return of Napoleon from Elba. During the following years he held a number of positions in various governments as the political history of France continued to be fairly chaotic. He was Minister of Education, Ambassador to London and Foreign Minister during the reign of Louis Philippe, and finally Prime Minister of France from September 1847 to February 1848. He supported restricting suffrage to propertied men and opposed those who wanted a larger extension of the franchise, actions which helped to inspire the revolution of 1848 which overhrew Louis Philippe and initiated the Second Republic. His position being insecure, he escaped to England where he was received warmly. Back in Paris in 1850 he proceeded to published two more volumes on the English revolution, Pourquoi la Révolution d'Angleterre a-t-elle reussi? and Discours sur l'histoire, de la Révolution d'Angleterre, and subsequently produced Histoire de la république d'Angleterre et de Cromwell in two volumes in 1854 and Histoire du protectorat de Cromwell et du rétablissement des Stuarts in two volumes in 1856. Then came his massive nine-volume work Mémoires pour servir à l'histoire de mon temps from 1858 to 1868. His final work was Histoire de France racontée à mes petits enfants. He remained mentally vigorous until the time of his final peaceful death in 1874. The genus Guizotia was named for him by Alexandre Henri Gabriel de Cassini in 1829, although I have no information as to why he was so chosen. (ref. genus Guizotia)
  • gummif'era: bearing or producing gum.
  • Gun'nera: named for Johan Ernst Gunnerus (1718-1773), Norwegian botanist and bishop, author of Flora Norvegica
      (1766-1772), founder of the Royal Norwegian Society. "Gunnerus was born at Christiania. He was bishop of Trondheim from 1758, and professor of theology at the university of Copenhagen. The following is quoted from the Wikipedia website: "Gunnerus was very interested in natural history and accumulated a large collection of specimens from visits to central and northern Norway. He also encouraged others to send him specimens. Together with the historians Gerhard Schönning and Peter Friederich Suhm he founded The Trondheim Society in 1760. In 1767 it received royal
    recognition and became the Royal Norwegian Society of Sciences and Letters. Gunnerus was Vice-President and Director Perpetuus of the Society from 1767 to 1773. The society began publishing its journal in 1761, entitled Det Trondhiemske Selskabs Skrifter, still published today as Det Kongelige Norske Videnskabers Selskabs Skrifter. In 1765 Gunnerus published a description of a basking shark in this journal, giving it the scientific name Squalus maximius. Gunnerus was the author of Flora Norvegica (1766-1776). He contributed notes on the ornithology of northern Norway to Knud Leem's Beskrivelse over Finmarkens Lapper (1767), translated into English in 1808 as An Account of the Laplanders of Finmark. In this Gunnerus was the first person to give a scientific name to the Greenshank. Gunnerus was the first to suggest that since the northern lights were caused by the Sun, there also had to be auroras around the moon, Venus and Mercury." The genus Gunnera was published by Carl Linnaeus in 1767. (ref. genus Gunnera)
  • gussonea'num: after Giovanni Gussone (1787-1866), Italian botanist and academic remembered for his work in plant
      taxonomy and his research on Sicilian flora. He was born in Naples and studied medicine there, where he met and came under the influence of botanist Michele Tenore. While there he was chosen as an assistant for the Flora Napolitana which Tenore was creating at the time. After graduating he worked as a manager at the Orto Botanico di Napoli (Royal Botanical Garden of Naples). He moved to Sicily in 1817 and was appointed Director of the botanical garden at Bocca di Falco, outside of Palermo. Based on his extensive studies of the flora of Sicily, he published two major
    works, Florae Siculae Prodromus and Florae Siculae Synopsis. He returned to Naples in 1827 as superintendent of the botanical gardens. He remained there until, in 1861, he succeeded Tenore as Director and was named Professor Emeritus of the University of Naples. His written works also included Plantae rariores (1826) and Enumeratio plantarum vascularium in insula Inarime (1855). Plants with the specific epithet of gussonei or gussoneanum are named in his honor. (ref. Hordeum marinum ssp. gussoneanum)
  • Gutierre'zia: named for Pedro Gutierrez (Rodriguez), name sometimes given as Pedro Gutierrez de Salceda, a 19th century Spanish nobleman, botanist and apothecary at the Madrid Botanical Garden called the Real Jardin Botanico founded by King Carlos III. The genus Gutierrezia was published in 1816 by Spanish botanist Mariano Lagasca y Segura, Director of the Real Jardin Botanico. Mariano Lagasca y Segura published the genus Gutierrezia in 1816. (ref. genus Gutierrezia)
  • gutta'tus: from the Latin meaning "a drop-like spot" which describes the red dots on both petals and sepals. (ref. Mimulus guttatus)
  • gymnocar'pa/gymnocar'pon: from the Greek gymnos, "naked," and karpos, "fruit."  (ref. Rosa gymnocarpa, Trifolium gymnocarpon)
  • gymnoceph'alum/gymnoceph'alus: bare-headed. (ref. Euchiton gymnocephalus)
  • gymnocla'da: from the word for "naked" and klados for "branch." (ref. Phacelia gymnoclada)
  • Gymnoster'is: Umberto Quattrocchi says: "Probably from the Greek gymnos, "naked," and sterizo, "to stand fast, to fix" (in the sense of a support or foundation.) The Jepson Manual simply says: Greek for "naked stem." The genus Gymnosteris was published by Edward Lee Greene in 1898. (ref. genus Gymnosteris)
  • gynodynam'a: presumably from the Greek gyne, "a woman, female," and dynamis, "power, strength," of uncertain application. (ref. Carex. gynodynama)
  • Gypsoph'ila/gypsoph'ilum: loving gypsum, due to the habitat of one species. The genus Gypsophila was published by Carl Linnaeus in 1753. (ref. genus Gypsophila, Delphinium gypsophilum)
  • gypsophilo'ides: having a resemblance to genus Gypsophila. (ref. Claytonia gypsophiloides)
  • -gyra: from the Greek gyros, "round, a circle."


Andreas Canyon near Palm Springs
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