L-R: Sarcodes sanguinea (Snow plant), Silene gallica (Windmill pink), Lilium parryi (Lemon lily), Calochortus venustus (Butterfly mariposa lily), Echinocereus triglochidiatus (Mojave mound cactus)

In the following names, the stressed vowel is the one preceding the stress mark. It is not always easy to ascertain where such stress should be placed, especially in the case of epithets derived from personal names. I have tried to follow the principle of maintaining the stress of the original name as outlined in the Jepson Manual, and have abandoned it only when it was just too awkward. In the case of some names, I have listed them twice, reflecting either some disagreement or conflict in the rules of pronunciation, some uncertainty on my part as to the correct pronunciation, or that simply sometimes there is no single correct pronunciation. In other instances, the way I record it is just that which sounds right to my ear. Where no credit is given for photos, they are in public domain mostly from Wikipedia.
  • a-: before a consonant, Greek prefix meaning "not, without, less" e.g. acaulis, "without a stem," apetalus, "without petals."
  • a-/ab-: Latin prefix meaning "away from," e.g. abaxialis, "away from the axis."
  • ab'bei: named for Dr. Ernst Cleveland Abbe (1905-2000), Professor Emeritus of Botany at the University of
      Minnesota. He was born in Washington, D.C. and died in Saint Paul, Minnesota. He received a B.S. in 1928 and a Master’s In 1930 from Cornell Univerity. In 1934 he was awarded a Ph.D. from Harvard University. After a Fellowship at Columbia he joined the faculty at the University of Minnesota where he remained until he retired. He served as Vice-President and President of the Minnesota Academy of Science. Plant Science Bulletin‘s obituary for Abbe says: “Abbe's early research was on inflorescence and floral anatomy of the Betulaceae.  Through the 1940s and 50s
    he turned his attention to the maize plant and more than 25 papers and articles on maize morphogenesis flowed from the laboratory. Many of these were investigations of the role of various mutants in altering developmental patterns. Later he returned to comparative studies of amentiferous taxa, particularly the Myricaceae. His last major publication was "Flowers and inflorescences of the Amentiferae," in Botanical Review 40(2):159-261, 1974. During his career he was the recipient of a number of awards, including a Guggenheim Fellowship at Harvard University (1941-42) and a Fullbright Professorship at the University of Singapore (1961-62). He participated in the Grenfell-Forbes Northern Labradore Expedition, 1931; the University of Minnesota Expedition to Hudson Bay, 1939; an expedition to Mt. Kinabalu on Borneo, 1962; and expeditions to Malaysia in 1959-60 and 1964. He was a Fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science and a Fellow of the Linnean Society of London.” He was the author of Vascular Plants of the Hamilton River Area Labrador (1955), Botanical Results of the Grenfell-Forbes Northern Labrador Expedition (1931) and other works. (ref. Deschampsia cespitosa var. abbei) (Photo credit: Find-a-Grave)
  • ab'bottii: after Edwin Kirk Abbott (1840-1918), born in Quebec, graduated Hillsdale College 1869 and Michigan
      University Medical College in 1871, was a practicing physician in Salinas, California and later in Monterey. And David Hollombe sent along the following from Cantelow and Cantelow, "Biographical Notes on Persons in whose Honor Alice Eastwood Named Native Plants," (Leaflets of Western Botany 8 (5): 83-101): "... born in Hartley, Canada, 27 Dec. 1840, died in Monterey, California, 11 June 1917 [should say 1918]. Graduate of Ann Arbor Medical School; early resident of Salinas, California, where he established the first drug store and maintained it
    for 34 years; served the county as weather observer for 40 years and rendered other public services; his favorite study was botany and he was an ardent collector of plants, especially in monterey County; his herbarium was given to the California Academy of Sciences by Mrs. Abbott after the doctor's death." (ref. Malacothamnus abbottii) (Photo credit: Geni)
  • ab'errans: deviating from the normal. (ref. Antennaria luzuloides ssp. aberrans)
  • a'bertii: after James William Abert (1820-1897), army officer and explorer, born November 18, 1820, in Mount
      Holly, New Jersey, the son of Maj. John James Abert, an officer in the Corps of Topographical Engineers. In his teens he attended Princeton University, where he graduated, probably from its academy, in 1838; he entered the United States Military Academy at West Point in September of that year. In 1842 he was assigned to the Fifth United States Infantry. After an uneventful year of garrison duty in Detroit, Abert was transferred to the Corps of Topographical Engineers in May 1843. His first assignment in the corps was that of assistant topographical engineer in an
    extensive survey of the northern lakes, 1843-44. During that time he married Jane Stone, and they had a son. In the summer of 1845 Abert was attached to the third expedition of John Charles Frémont, whose assignment was "to make reconnaissance southward and eastward along the Canadian River through the country of Kiowa and Comanche." Frémont, however, chose to take his main party on to California, and gave command of the Canadian River mission to Abert, with an assistant, Lt. William G. Peck. Except for the two young officers, the entire party of thirty-three was composed of civilians. In his report Abert described in detail the geology, flora, and fauna of the Canadian valley. His maps of the region were the most accurate of the time, and later explorers found them quite useful, especially for finding campsites and watering places. In the summer of 1846 Abert and Peck accompanied Gen. Stephen W. Kearny's Army of the West to New Mexico. Abert came down with a fever in July and had to remain behind at Bent's Fort to recuperate. While he was sick he continued his studies in natural science and ethnology and compiled a tribal dictionary. Afterward he joined Peck in Santa Fe, and the two lieutenants conducted a thorough survey of New Mexico as far south as Socorro. They visited each of the Rio Grande pueblos and, as before, took note of the geology and wildlife of the new American territory, as well as of the habits and customs of its native residents. Abert then went to Washington to submit his report to Congress. From 1848 to 1850 he served on the faculty at West Point, where he taught drawing. He was promoted to first lieutenant in 1853 and to captain in 1856. After the death of his first wife he married Lucy Taylor, with whom he had several children. In 1860, after serving two years in Florida, he traveled in Europe to study military affairs and visit various forts and arsenals. When the Civil War broke out Abert served in the Shenandoah valley from June 1861 to September 1862. On March 3, 1863, he was promoted to major and assigned to the United States Army Corps of Engineers. He was later severely injured by a fall from his horse, and in 1864 he resigned from the army. He had been brevetted lieutenant colonel for his "faithful and meritorious service." During the next five years, Abert and his family engaged in the mercantile business in Cincinnati, Ohio. From 1869 to 1871 he served as examiner of patents in Washington. He taught English literature at the University of Missouri from 1877 to 1879 and afterward was president of the Examining Board of Teachers of Public Schools in Kentucky. Abert was reappointed a major in the United States Army on January 14, 1895, and retired almost immediately. He died at his home in Newport, Kentucky, on August 10, 1897. Despite the value of Abert's western frontier journals, they lay almost forgotten in government files until 1941, when H. Bailey Carroll first published the 1845 report in the Panhandle-Plains Historical Review. William A. Keleher published Abert's New Mexico report in 1962. In 1967 and 1970 special publications of the Abert journals were edited under the title Through the Country of the Comanche Indians in the Fall of the Year 1845 by John Galvin, a California historian. They featured illustrations of Abert's watercolors, many of which were obtained from his descendants. A species of finch that Abert discovered was named Pipilo aberti in his honor. (Information extracted from the Handbook of Texas Online, http://www.tsha.utexas.edu/handbook/online). The taxon Sanvitalia aberti was published in 1849 by Harvard botanist Asa Gray. ( ref. Sanvitalia abertii)
  • A'bies: Latin name for silver fir. The genus Abies was published by Philip Miller in 1754. (ref. genus Abies)
  • abieti'num: resembling genus Abies. (ref. Arceuthobium abietinum)
  • -abilis: a Latin adjectival suffix used to indicate a capacity or ability to do something, and employed when the root infinitive ends in -are (e.g. variabilis, "ability to change," from variare, "to change").
  • abbrevia'tus: shortened or abbreviated in some fashion.
  • abjec'tus: cast down, rejected, low, mean, worthless. (ref. Juncus hemiendytus var. abjectus)
  • abla'ta: from the Latin ablatus, "removed, withdrawn." (ref. Carex luzulina var. ablata)
  • aborig'inum/aborig'inus: ancestral, native, original. (ref. Cymopterus aboriginum, Malacothamnus aboriginum, Lotus aboriginus)
  • abor'tiva: with parts missing, imperfect; producing abortion. (ref. Cryptantha cinerea var. abortiva)
  • abramsia'na: see abramsii below. (ref. Callitropsis [formerly Cupressus] abramsiana, Euphorbia abramsiana)
  • a'bramsii: after LeRoy Abrams (1874-1956), professor of botany at Stanford University, who collected plants from throughout the Southern California region in the late 1890s to 1905 and published a book entitled Flora of Los Angeles and Vicinity first in 1904, then 1911, finally in 1917. He also produced The Floral Features of California in 1915, and the four-volume Illustrated Flora of the Pacific States, Washington, Oregon and California, the only completely illustrated flora for California, featuring copious line drawings illustrating diagnostic features, especially seed, fruit and flower characters. Abrams was the author of the first three volumes and Roxanna Ferris that of the fourth. He was one of the founding members of an organization in the San Francisco Bay area called the Biosystematists. Abrams was on the staff of the Dudley Herbarium at Stanford, and was assistant curator at the U.S. National Herbarium 1905-1906. His name is on the Abrams' lupine, Lupinus albifrons var. abramsii, which he collected in Santa Lucia, California in 1920. He was responsible for finding a rare cypress, [Cupressus arizonica ssp. nevadensis] about which Donald Peattie wrote in A Natural History of Western Trees (1950): "Most of the California cypresses tend to be rare and local in their occurrence, but none more so than this one, which was discovered in 1915 by that dean of California botanists, Leroy Abrams. He drove south along the road between Bodfish and Havilah for about 3 miles to the summit of a grade, then turned off on an unsurfaces clay road ... for 2 1/2 miles. And there he came upon thousands of specimens of this conical tree, its foliage in summer, when Abrams first saw it, a dusty gray-green, though in spring when the rains are ending it is a fine glowing green. Flowering takes place in February and March and at that time many of the specimens, according to the ranchers, appear as golden trees, powdered over with untold numbers of yellow male flowers." Many of the common names in the CNPS Inventory of Rare and Endangered Species of California were coined by Abrams in his Illustrated Flora. (ref. Dudleya abramsii, Heuchera abramsii, Pogogyne abramsii)
  • Abro'nia: from Greek abros meaning "graceful or delicate," in reference to the appearance of the bracts below the flowers. The genus Abronia was published in 1789 by Antoine Laurent de Jussieu. (ref. genus Abronia)
  • abrotanifo'lia: having leaves resembling southernwood, Artemisia abrotanum. (ref. Gilia capitata ssp. abrotanifolia)
  • abrup'ta: ending suddenly, abrupt. (ref. Carex abrupta)
  • absin'thium: Stearn's Dictionary of Plant Names says that this is the "Latin and pre-Linnaean name for wormwood, the botanical name for which is Artemisia absinthium.It is used to flavor absinthe. In biblical days it was a symbol of calamity and sorrow." (ref. Artemisia absinthium)
  • Abu'tilon: this name was first used by the Persian philosopher and polymath Avicenna or Abū Alī al-usayn ibn Abd Allāh ibn Sīnā (Ibn-Sina) around 900 B.C. for plants that resembled mallows or mulberries. Philip Miller published the genus Abutilon in 1754. (ref. genus Abutilon)
  • abutilo'ides: like Abutilon. (ref. Abutilon abutiloides)
  • abyssin'ica: Abyssinian, native to Ethiopia. (ref. Guizotia abyssinica)
  • Aca'cia: from the Greek name akakie taken from ake or akis, "a sharp point," in reference to the thorns. The genus Acacia was published by Philip Miller in 1754. (ref. genus Acacia)
  • Acae'na: from the Greek word for "thorn" from the fruit. The genus Acaena was published in 1771 by José Celestino Bruno Mutis. (ref. genus Acaena)
  • Acaly'pha: from the Greek akalephes for "nettle," being an ancient name for a kind of nettle but applied by Linnaeus to this genus because of the nettle-like appearance of the leaves. The genus Acalypha was published in 1753 by Carl Linnaeus. (ref. genus Acalypha)
  • Acamptopap'pus: from the Greek akamptos, "stiff," and pappos, "pappus," thus meaning stiff or unbending pappus. The genus Acamptopappus was published by Asa Gray in 1873. (ref. genus Acamptopappus)
  • acanthicar'pa/acanthocar'pa/acanthocar'pus: with thorny fruits like those of Acanthus. (ref. Cylindropuntia acanthocarpa, Ambrosia acanthicarpa, Plagiobothrys acanthocarpus)
  • acanthifo'lia: with spiny leaves like those of Acanthus.
  • acan'thium: from the root meaning "spiky, spiny or thorny," and the suffix -ium meaning "characteristic of." (ref. Onopordum acanthium)
  • acanthocar'pa: see acanthicarpa above. (ref. Cylindropuntia acanthocarpa)
  • acanthocla'da: with thorny branches. (ref. Polygala acanthoclada)
  • acantho'ides: appearing like a spike or spine. (ref. Carduus acanthoides)
  • Acanthomin'tha: from the Greek acantha, "thorn," and mentha, "mint," hence a mint that is characteristically thorny. The genus Acanthomintha was published by Asa Gray in 1878. (ref. genus Acanthomintha)
  • Acanthoscy'phus: from the Greek acanthos, "flower," and scyphos, "a cup, goblet or jug," in reference to the position of the flowers in an involucre. The genus Acanthoscyphus was published in 1898 by John Kunkel Small. (ref. genus Acanthoscyphus)
  • Acan'thus: from the Greek acanthos, meaning "flower," and referring to the statuesque flower spikes which last for many weeks, and the plant most celebrated in architecture since the Greeks adopted its leaf form for the well-known decoration on the caps of their Corinthian columns. The genus Acanthus was published in 1753 by Carl Linnaeus. (ref. genus Acanthus)
  • acau'lis: without a stem. (ref. Anisocoma acaulis, Hesperevax acaulis var. ambusticola, Limosella acaulis, Stenotus [formerly Haplopappus] acaulisTetraneuris acaulis var. arizonica)
  • ac'cidens: falling forward, alluding to the stems and pods. Many of the names that have -dens as a suffix relate to teeth (Bidens, latidens, acutidens, serratodens), but others don't (splendens, ascendens). (ref. Astragalus accidens)
  • -acea: a Latin adjectival suffix which indicates resemblance or material out of which something is made (e.g. drupacea, "like a drupe," oleracea, "resembling garden herbs or vegetables used in cooking," ranunculacea, "Ranunculus-like," crustacea, "resembling or being made out of a shell or rind," membranacea, "like a membrane").
  • -aceae: the ending of plant family names.
  • aceph'alus: headless.
  • A'cer: the classical Latin name for the maple which seems to derive from the same roots as for the word acrid and possibly acerbic, and refers to either sharpness or hardness, the wood having been used for writing tablets and spear hafts by the Romans. Carl Linnaeus published the genus Acer in 1753. (ref. genus Acer)
  • acer'bus: bitter.
  • acero'ides: maple-like.
  • acero'sa: sharp, or with stiff needles. (ref. Iva acerosa)
  • acetosel'la: pre-Linnaean name for common sorrel and other plants with acidic leaves. (ref. Rumex acetosella)
  • -aceum/-aceus: see -acea above (e.g. malvaceum, "like a mallow"; coriaceus, "leathery"; rosaceus, "like a rose, rosy"; oleraceus, "resembling greens or vegetables"), also "of or pertaining to."
  • achillaeo'ides: like genus Achillea.
  • Achil'lea: named for Achilles, who according to Homer in Greek mythology was a student of Chiron, the centaur known for his knowledge of medicinal herbs. Achilles supposedly used plants of the genus to staunch the wounds of his soldiers at the siege of Troy. Ironically called "nose-bleed, " it was apparently used to induce nose-bleeds as a means of curing headaches. Yarrow was one of the medicinal herbs that was found at a 60,000 year old Neanderthal burial site in Iraq. The genus Achillea was published in 1753 by Carl Linnaeus. (ref. genus Achillea)
  • achilleifo'lia: with foliage like Achillea. (ref. Gilia achilleifolia)
  • A'chlys: after a minor Greek goddess, the Goddess of hidden places or obscurity, perhaps alluding to the woodland habitat or to the inconspicuous flowers which have no perianth. Other mythological sources give different interpretations. One is that Achlys was the eternal Night (Perhaps the Mist of Death, which clouded the eyes of the dying), and the first created being which existed even before Chaos, and another (Hesiod) that she was the personification of misery and sadness, a daughter of Nyx (Night) and as such she was represented on the shield of Heracles as pale, emaciated, and weeping, with chattering teeth, swollen knees, long nails on her fingers, bloody cheeks, and her shoulders thickly covered with dust. The genus Achlys was published by Augustin Pyramus de Candolle in 1821. (ref. genus Achlys)
  • Achna'therum: awned scale or awn-scaled, from Greek achne, "chaff, glume," and ather, "stalk, barb" alluding to the lemma. The genus Achnatherum was published by Ambroise Marie François Joseph Palisot de Beauvois in 1812. (ref. genus Achnatherum)
  • Achyrachae'na: from the Greek and Latin meaning "a chaffy achene" and alluding to the pappus. The genus Achyrachaena was published in 1837 by Johannes Conrad Schauer. (ref. genus Achyrachaena)
  • Achyrony'chia: from the Greek for "chaff claw" or "fingernail" alluding to the chaffy calyx. The genus Achyronychia was published in 1868 by John Torrey and Asa Gray. (ref. genus Achyronychia)
  • acicular'is: needle-like. (ref. Eleocharis acicularis, Linanthus acicularis)
  • acina'ceus: shaped like a curved sword or scimitar.
  • -acious/-aceous: abounding in, containing, having, as in "membranaceous."
  • Acleisan'thes: from the Greek a, "without, lacking" cleis, "something which closes, lock" and anthos, "flower," and thus meaning "without an involucre." The genus Acleisanthes was published by Asa Gray in 1853. (ref. genus Acleisanthes)
  • Acmis'pon: a name published by C.S. Rafinesque, presumably from the Greek acme, "a point or edge," and explained by him in his publication in Atlantic Journal 1 (4): 144-145, 1832, as "Point hooked" in probable reference to the hook-tipped fruit. The genus Acmispon was published in 1832 by Constantine Samuel Rafinesque. (ref. genus Acmispon)
  • acmophyl'lus: with pointed leaves.
  • Aconi'tum: the ancient Greek name of this plant, loosely translated as "unconquerable poison." The genus Aconitum was published by Carl Linnaeus in 1753. (ref. genus Aconitum)
  • Acono'gonon: from the Greek akonao, "to sharpen," plus gonia or gonos, "corner, or angle", an allusion to the sharp edges of the fruit. There has been some uncertainty as to the correct spelling of this name, with some sources going with Aconogonum, but it appears that the Jepson Manual 2nd edition will give it this spelling. The genus Aconogonon was published by Heinrich Gottlieb Ludwig Reichenbach in 1837. (ref. genus Aconogonon)
  • Aco'rus: from the Greek akoron and akoros, an ancient name applied both to the sweet flag Acorus calamus and the yellow flag Iris pseudacorus. The name became the Latin acorus and acorum which Pliny used for an aromatic plant whose root stocks were used for cosmetics. The genus Acorus was published by Carl Linnaeus in 1753. (ref. genus Acorus)
  • Acos'ta: named for Portuguese doctor, natural historian and one of the pioneers of Indo-Portuguese medicine
      Cristóvão da Acosta (Cristóbal Acosta) (1515-1594). His birthplace is not known for certain, but it is thought to have been somewhere in Africa, possibly Tangier or Portuguese Cape Verde. He apparently went by the name at some point of Christophorus Acosta Africanus. Wikipedia says: “He probably studied at Salamanca and first travelled to the East Indies in 1550 as a soldier. He took part in some campaigns against the native populace, and at one point was taken prisoner and held captive in Bengal. After returning to Portugal, he joined his former captain, Luís de Ataíde,
    who had been appointed viceroy of Portuguese India. He returned to Goa in 1568, the year Garcia de Orta died. He served as personal physician to the viceroy, and in 1569 was appointed physician to the royal hospital in Cochin, where he had the opportunity of treating the king of Cochin. By 1571, he was noted as collecting botanical specimens from various parts of India. He returned to Portugal in 1572 after Ataíde's term ended. From 1576 to 1587 he served as surgeon and then physician in Burgos (Spain).” The work that he published in 1578 called Tractado de las drogas y medicinas de las Indias orientales ("Treatise of the drugs and medicines of the East Indies") was not wholly original but drew on an earlier work by Garcia de Orta. He retired to a hermitage after his wife died. He died in Spain. The genus Acosta was published in 1763 by Michel Adanson. The genus Acosta was published by Michel Adanson in 1763. (ref. genus Acosta)
  • Acour'tia: after a Mrs. Mary Elizabeth Catherine Gibbes A'Court (1792-1878), daughter of Abraham Gibbes and wife of Lt-Gen. Charles Ashe a'Court. Mary was an English amateur botanist. The genus Acourtia was published in 1830 by David Don. (ref. genus Acourtia, formerly Perezia)
  • Acra'chne: from the Greek akros, "the summit, highest, at the top," and achne, "chaff, glume," in reference to the terminal glume. The genus Acrachne was published in 1908 by Robert Wight and George Arnott Walker Arnott. (ref. genus Acrachne)
  • acrade'nia/acrade'nius: from the Greek for "pointed-glanded," each of the involucral bracts having a large gland at its tip. (ref. Isocoma [formerly Haplopappus] acradenia)
  • a'cris: sharp-tasting, biting, acrid. (ref. Ranunculus acris, Trimorpha acris)
  • acris'pum: from the prefix a-, "without," and crispum, "finely waved, closely curled," and referring to the hairs. (ref. Galium catalinense ssp. acrispum)
  • Acrop'tilon: from the Greek for "feather-tipped" from the bristles of the pappus. The genus Acroptilon was published in 1827 by Alexandre Henri Gabriel de Cassini.(ref. genus Acroptilon)
  • acrostichoides: like genus Acostichum. (ref. Cryptogramma acrostichoides)
  • Ac'taea: the Jepson Manual says "an ancient Greek name, from its wet habitat and similarity to Sambucus leaves," and Umberto Quattrocchi says: "Latin actaea for a strong-smelling plant, herb Christopher (Plinius); Greek aktea, akte, 'the elder-tree, elder,' referring to the leaves or to the fruits." The genus Actaea was published by Carl Linnaeus in 1753. (ref. genus Actaea)
  • ac'toni: I presume that this name comes from the town of Acton, California, which is located on the Antelope Valley side of the western end of the San Gabriel range. (ref. Encelia actoni)
  • acu-: sharply-pointed.
  • aculea'ta: prickly. (ref. Arenaria aculeata, Parkinsonia aculeata)
  • aculeatis'simus: very prickly.
  • aculeola'ta: with small prickles. (ref. Arabis aculeolata)
  • acumina'ta/acumina'tum/acumina'tus: having a long tapering point. (ref. Crepis acuminata, Eriochloa acuminata, Microseris acuminata, Thelypteris acuminata, Panicum acuminatum, Cyperus acuminatus)
  • acu'ta/acu'tus: with a sharp but not tapering point. (ref. Gentianella amarella ssp. acuta, Juncus acutus)
  • acu'tidens: sharply toothed. (ref. Quercus acutidens)
  • acutifo'lia/acutifo'lius: with pointed leaves. (ref. Physalis acutifolia)
  • acutiros'tris: very sharply beaked. (ref. Astragalus acutirostris)
  • acutis'sima: very sharply pointed.
  • adamsia'na: after pioneer Mary Ann Adams Peacock (Mrs. Peter James Peacock) (1861-1942), for many years
      operator of Adams Station, one of the historic stage stations in the West. She was born in Josephine County, Oregon, and lived at Waldo in her early years. Waldo is now a ghost town. She lived for a while in Grants Pass and then at some point moved south to Gasquet, Del Norte County, California, where she was in charge of the hotel in the late 1890s after the death of Mrs. Gasquet. She established the stage station nearby. She married Peter Peacock and often acted as a nurse in an area where such care was almost nonexistent. She died in Gasquet at age 81 and was buried
    next to her husband. (ref. Anenome adamsiana, Valeriana adamsiana) (Photo credit: Find-a-Grave)
  • a'damsii: after Joseph Edison Adams (1903-1981), professor emeritus of botany at the University of North Carolina and author of "A Systematic Study of the Genus Arctostaphylos" published in 1935. The following is from an obituary in Castanea, the Journal of the Southern Appalachian Botanical Society, Vol. 47, No. 1 (1982): "A specialist in the taxonomy of vascular plants, he was nationally known as the co-author of the textbook, Plants: An Introduction to Modern Botany. The text, co-authored with V.A. Greulach, is widely used in the United States and has been translated into several foreign languages. He also wrote extensively on plant anatomy and plant morphology. His lifelong research and graduate teaching interest was in the classification and phylogeny of flowering plants. His research and that of all his doctoral students was directed to that effort. He was a challenging and stimulating, as well as congenial, graduate adviser and seminar leader, an outstanding lecturer, superbly organized, articulate, a master of language and an excellent writer. He was a provocative, pithy, professional scientist, who played a large role in the development and excellence of [his] department in the 40s and 50s. He was a member of the N.C. Academy of Science, the Association of Southeastern Biologists, the Botanical Society of America and the American Association for the Advancement of Science. Born in Middletown, N.Y., Adams received his bachelor's degree from the University of Michigan and his masters from Columbia University. He received his doctorate from the University of California at Berkeley." He taught at UNC from 1935 to 1969. (ref. Arctostaphylos glandulosa ssp. adamsii)
  • Adelin'ia: named for Adeline Etta Cohen (2014- ). The name was published by her father, botanist Dr. James I.
      Cohen in 2015. He was born and raised jn Washington, D.C. but spent many summers of his youth in the North Woods of Minnesota, Wisconsin, and Michigan which at least partly inspired him to study ecology and environmental science. attended the School of Natural Resources and Environment (SNRE) at the University of Michigan majoring in Resource Ecology and Manage-ment. While studying plant and forest ecology, Cohen was encouraged to take a course in plant systematics and discovered his passion for botany, evolution, and ecology. He went on to earn his
    PhD in the Bailey Hortorium at Cornell University, where he studied the systematics of Lithospermum (Boraginaceae) and the evolution and development of heterostyly.  Graduating in 2010, he moved to Laredo, Texas to work at Texas A&M International University, then settled in Flint, Michigan, where he joined the newly formed Applied Biology program at Kettering University, where he is an assistant professor of biology. The genus Adelinia was published in 2015 by James Cohen. (ref. genus Adelinia)
  • adenocar'pus: glandular- or sticky-fruited.
  • adenocau'lon: from the Greek aden, "a gland," and caulon, "stem," referring to the small depression on the stem. (ref. Epilobium adenocaulon)
  • adenoph'ora/adenoph'orum: bearing or producing glands as some part of the plant, often referring to sticky gland.s (ref. Ageratina adenophora, Ditaxis adenophora, Eupatorium adenophorum)
  • Adenophyl'lum: from the Greek for "gland-leaf." The Adenophyllum was published in 1807 by Christiaan Hendrik Persoon. (ref. genus Adenophyllum)
  • adenophyllus: having glandular leaves.
  • Adenos'toma: from the Greek aden, "a gland," and stoma, "a mouth," in reference to the 5 glands at the mouth of the sepals. The genus Adenostoma was published in 1841 by William Jackson Hooker and George Arnott Walker Arnott. (ref. genus Adenostoma)
  • Adian'tum: from the Greek adiantos, meaning "unwetted" or "unwettable," and referring to the way the fronds repel water. The genus Adiantum was published by Carl Linnaeus in 1753. (ref. genus Adiantum)
  • admira'bilis: noteworthy in some fashion, admirable.
  • adna'tus: growing together in a joined but apparently abnormal manner.
  • Adol'phia: named for Adolphe Theodore Brongniart (1801-1876), son of mineralogist, chemist, geologist and
      paleontologist Alexandre Brongniart. Adolphe was a student of the Rhamnaceae, a pioneer in the study of plant morphology and physiology, author of an important work on fossil plants, and a French botanist whose classifications of fossil plants showed surprisingly accurate relationships between extant and extinct forms. In 1831 he became an assistant to the botanist Rene Desfontaines at the National Museum of Natural History in Paris, and took his place two years later, a position he was to hold for the remainder of his life. He is considered one of the founders
    of modern paleobotany, and made substantial contributions to the field of angiosperm morphology also producing a valuable first account of pollen. He founded the Societe botanique de France. The genus Adolphia was first published in 1837 by Carl Daniel Friedrich Meisner and then by Sereno Watson in 1876. (ref. genus Adolphia)
  • Adon'is: Stearn's Dictionary of Plant Names says: "The flower is supposed to have sprung from the blood of Adonis who was gored to death by a wild boar. He was beloved of Aphrodite and by some accounts was unsuccessfully wooed by her. Adonis was regarded by the Greeks as the god of plants. It was believed that he disappeared into the earth in autumn and winter only to reappear in spring and summer. To celebrate his return, the Greeks adopted the Semitic custom of making Adonis gardens, consisting of clay pots of quickly growing seeds." Carl Linnaeus published the genus Adonis in 1753. (ref. genus Adonis)
  • adpres'sus: pressed against or lying flat against, as in the case of hairs on some plant stems or scales on cones.
  • adscensio'nis: an internet search turned up the fact that the type specimen of Aristida adscensionis is from Ascension Island, and several other species that are associated with that island, such as Pteris adscensionis and Oldenlandia adscensionis, use the specific epithets adscensionis, ascensionis and ascensionense, so I think we can with confidence attribute the derivation of this name to that South Atlantic island. (ref. Aristida adscensionis)
  • adsur'gens: rising to an erect position. (ref. Lupinus adsurgens)
  • adun'ca/adun'cus: hooked, like the beat of a parrot, crooked, or bent backwards. (ref. Viola adunca)
  • adven'us: newly arrived, therefore not native.
  • -ae: a suffix usually given to a personal name to convert that name to a substantival commemorative epithet in cases where the personal name is that of a woman, thus parryae, commemorating Mrs. Charles Parry (see Nomenclature).
  • Ae'gilops: from the ancient Greek name aegilops for a kind of long-awned or bearded grass and used by Theophrastus for a kind of oat. The genus Aegilops was published by Carl Linnaeus in 1753. (ref. genus Aegilops)
  • aegyp'tium: presumably Egyptian. (ref. Dactyloctenium aegyptium)
  • ae'mulus: imitating.
  • aene'us: possessing a more or less bronze or coppery color.
  • aeo'lica: from the Greek aiolos, "shifting, flexible, changeable, variegated," from Aiolos, God of the Winds, and referring to the fact that this taxon is anemophilous or wind-pollinated. (ref. Pentachaeta exilis ssp. aeolica)
  • Aeo'nium: a Latin name for one species of this family of succulents given by Dioscorides. The genus Aeonium was published by Philip Barker Webb and Sabin Berthelot in 1840. (ref. genus Aeonium)
  • aequa'le/aequa'lis: equal. (ref. Geranium aequale, Alopecurus aequalis)
  • aequi-: a prefix generally indicating the characteristic of being equal in some regard.
  • aequifo'lius: with equal leaves. (ref. Erigeron aequifolius)
  • aequila'terus: equal-sided. (ref. Carpobrotus aequilaterus, now named Carpobrotus chilensis)
  • aequinoctia'lis: belonging to the equinoctial zone; from the equatorial regions. (ref. Lemna aequinoctialis)
  • aer'ius: aerial, above the ground.
  • Aeschyno'mene: from the ancient Greek name for a sensitive plant used by Pliny, aischynomene, derived from aischyno, "shame," and from the Latin aeschynomene for a plant which shrinks when touched, a sensitive plant (CRC World Dictionary of Plant Names). The genus Aeschyno'mene was published by Carl Linnaeus in 1753. (ref. genus Aeschynomene)
  • Aes'culus: the Latin name for a kind of oak bearing edible acorns but applied by Linnaeus to this genus. The genus Aesculus was published in 1753 by Carl Linnaeus. (ref. genus Aesculus)
  • aestiva'lis: of the summer, often flowering then. (ref. Adonis aestivalis)
  • aes'tivum: flowering, ripening or developing in summer. (ref. Triticum aestivum)
  • aethio'pica: of or from Ethiopia, or possibly from a larger region of Africa. (ref. Chasmanthe aethiopica, Zantedeschia aethiopica)
  • aethio'pis: Pliny the Elder's The Natural History (edited by John Bostock) at the Online Books Page (http://onlinebooks.library.upenn.edu/webbin/book/subjectstart?QH-QR) contains the following: "Aethiopis (Generally identified with the Salvia argentea of Linnæus, Silver sage, or else with the Salvia Æthiopis, Woolly sage) is a plant with leaves resembling those of phlomos, large, numerous, hairy, and springing from the root. The stem is square, rough, similar to that of arction in appearance, and with numerous axillary concavities. The seed resembles that of the fitch, being white and twofold; the roots are several in number, long, fleshy, soft, and of a viscous taste; when dry they turn black and hard, and might easily be taken for horns. In addition to Æthiopia, this plant grows upon Mount Ida in Troas, and in Messenia. The roots are gathered in autumn, and left to dry for some days in the sun, to prevent them from turning mouldy. Taken in white wine they are curative of affections of the uterus, and a decoction of them is administered for sciatica, pleurisy, and eruptions of the throat. The kind, however, which comes from Æthiopia, is by far the best, and gives instantaneous relief." (ref. Salvia aethiopsis)
  • aetnen'sis: named after Mt. Etna, the volcanic mountain of Sicily, this taxon is called Mt. Etna broom. (ref. Genista aetnensis)
  • -aeum/-aeus: a Greek adjectival suffix indicating "belong to or from." (e.g. europaeus, "of or from Europe")
  • affi'ne/affi'nis: bordering on or related or similar to. (ref. Lithophragma affine, Axonopus affinis, Castilleja afffinis, Cryptantha affinis, Mentzelia affinis, Phacelia affinis)
  • africa'na: of or from Africa. (ref. Strigosella africana, Tamarix africana)
  • agardhia'nus: after Swedish botanist, phycologist and taxonomist Jacob Georg Agardh (1813-1901), son of botany
      professor Carl Adolph Agardh. Jacob was the author of "Synopsis Generis Lupini" as well as a number of other works. He was also a professor of botany at the University of Lund 1854-1879 and published works on marine algae, the main one being "Species, genera et ordines algarum." He was the principle architect of the botanical garden at Lund University. He was a member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, and quite a few other learned societies. He followed in the footsteps of his father by being a member of the Swedish parliament 1867-1872. He carried on a
    correspondence with the British botanist John Torrey, and was very interested in and involved with banking and economic issues. (ref. Lupinus agardianus now part of L. concinnus)
  • agassizensis: according to the publication of Poa agassizensis by Joseph Robert Bernard Boivin and Doris Benta
      Maria Löve, "The species is the predominant prairie grass between Red River and the Manitoba escarpment. These level lowlands were formed on the bottom of the periglacial Lake Agassiz, hence we have given our taxon the name Poa agassizensis." Lake Agassiz in turn was "named by Warren Upham in 1879 after Louis Agassiz, when Upham recognized that the lake was formed by glacial action." (Wikipedia) Louis Agassiz (1807-1873) was the great Swiss-born geologist who became a professor of zoology and geology at Harvard and founded the science of glaciology.
    The school he established where the science of zoology could be pursued amid the living subjects of its study was called the John Anderson School after a wealthy philanthropist who donated to Agassiz an island off the coast of Massachusetts. It became defunct after his death but is considered the forerunner of the Woods Hole Marine Biological Observatory. According to Wikipedia, Agassiz "is remembered today for his theories on ice ages, and for his resistance to Charles Darwin's theories on evolution, which he kept up his entire life... After [he] came to the United States he wrote prolifically on polygenism, the idea that races were created separately, that they could be classified on the basis of specific climatic zones, and that they were endowed with unequal attributes, ideas now included under the rubric of scientific racism." (ref. Poa agassizensis)
  • Agasta'che: from agan, "very much," and stachys, "an ear of corn or wheat," having many spikes. The genus Agastache was published in 1762 by John Clayton. (ref. genus Agastache)
  • Aga've: from the Greek agauos, "admirable, noble," in reference to the admirable appearance of the century plant. The genus Agave was published in 1753 by Carl Linnaeus. (ref. genus Agave)
  • Agerati'na: diminutive of Ageratum, which is from the Greek ageratos or ageraton and means "not growing old" in allusion to the flowers which retain their color for a long time. The genus Ageratina was published in 1841 by Édouard Spach. (ref. genus Ageratina)
  • aggrega'ta: "flocking together," or growing in groups, clustered (ref. Ipomopsis aggregata)
  • agnici'dus: sheep-killing, presumably from the root agnus, "lamb" with the same ending as in regicide ("the killing of a king"). From David Hollombe: "Astragalus agnicidus was at first thought to be responsible for poisoning sheep on A. Henry Tosten's ranch in Humboldt County. (It has been found to be harmless to cattle and there is doubt whether it was actually responsible for the sheep death). (ref. Astragalus agnicidus)
  • agni'num: I can't say for sure what the derivation of this epithet is. I had originally thought it was from the Latin agninus, "of a lamb, fleecy," but since Greene's description describes the stem and branches as being glabrous, this seems questionable. David Hollombe proposed two possibilities. One is that in the original description of Eriogonum agninum, Greene mentions that this plant is common on the north slope of the Santa Inez (Ynez) Mountains and Inez is the Spanish translation of the name Agnes. The other possibility is that he was comparing agninum to E. vimineum and found it to be woolier. He does refer to both surfaces of the leaves as 'hoary-tomentose.' (ref. Eriogonum cithariforme var. agninum)
  • ag'nus-ca'stus: this taxon is commonly called chaste tree. The following is quoted from Gernot Katzer's Spice Pages (http://www.uni-graz.at/~katzer/engl/Vite_agn.html): "Chaste tree carries several 'sacred' names, which more or less directly refer to its reputation as an anaphrodisiac. In ancient Greece, the tree was called agnos, which apparently the early Christians confused both with a similar Greek term hagnos, 'chaste,' and with Latin agnus, 'lamb,' the Christian symbol of purity. Under the name agnus castus, 'chaste lamb,' the plants were often used among Christian monks as a help against the evils of the more fleshy desires, of which there were many." Castus is Latin for "pure." (ref. Vitex agnus-castus)
  • -ago: a Latin substantival suffix used to indicate a resemblance or property (e.g. plumbago, "a kind of lead, a plant called leadwort," from plumbum, "lead").
  • Agos'eris: the Greek name for goat chicory. The genus Agoseris was published in 1817 by Constantine Samuel Rafinesque. (ref. genus Agoseris)
  • agouren'sis: of or from the area of Agoura, California. (ref. Dudleya cymosa ssp. agourensis)
  • agres'tis: growing in the fields. (ref. Astragalus agrestis, Fritillaria agrestis)
  • agrifo'lia: according to William Stearn's Dictionary of Plant Names, agrifolia means "with rough or scabby leaves." Possible root words are the Latin agri, "a field," and the Greek agri or agro, "fierce or wild," from which the Latin meaning may have descended. Since folium and folius are Latin, and Greek and Latin were generally not mixed to form words, the Latin root would probably be the most likely. I have no idea how Stearn came up with the meaning which he gives, since no root appears to support that meaning. There seems to be a general feeling (and it has often been so stated) that there was an error either by the describing botanist or by a printer, and that the name should have been aquifolia, or "holly-leaved" since oak leaves sometimes do resemble those of the holly. Since the author of the taxon, Luis Née, has been dead for 200 years, it is difficult to say what was in his mind when he named it. I have not been able thus far to uncover any hard evidence that an error in fact did take place, but if anyone has such please forward it to me. There is however evidence of a link between agrifolia and aquifolia. In the 1700s the names Agrifolium and Aquifolium were apparently used interchangeably for a holly plant, possibly what eventually received the name Ilex aquifolia. The only other genus I can find which uses the specific epithet agrifolia is the Australian member of the Myrtaceae Grevillea agrifolia, which also does have very holly-like leaves. And David Hollombe sent me the following note: "The modern Italian word for holly is 'agrifoglio,' derived from 'aquifolium.' I think agrifolium is a medieval Latin intermediate between the two." The further suggestion that the name was originally intended to be acrifolia from the root for "sharp" seems less likely to me. (ref. Quercus agrifolia var. agrifolia, Quercus agrifolia var. oxyadenia)
  • Agrimo'nia: both the Jepson Manual and Munz's Flora of Southern California posit that this name is derived from the Greek argema, an eye-disease, because of its supposed medicinal value, but I can't find any reference to agrimony's having been used for eye conditions. Another possibility is that it is a misrendering of some other epithet, perhaps argemone, an old name used by Dioscorides and Pliny for the poppy, or argemonion, a name Dioscorides applied to the Anenome. These two derivations could actually relate to the same thing because argemone is supposedly a word given by the Greeks to plants which were healing to the eyes. Umberto Quattrocchi also suggests the less likely explanation that it could be from the Greek agros, "field or open land," and monos, "alone, lonely." The genus Agrimonia was published in 1753 by Carl Linnaeus. (ref. genus Agrimonia)
  • Agropy'ron: from the Greek agros, "a field, country," and pyron, "grain, wheat." The genus Agropyron was published in 1770 by Joseph Gaertner. (ref. genus Agropyron)
  • Agrostem'ma/Agros'temma: from the Greek agros, "field," and stemma, "crown or garland." The genus Agrostemma was published in 1753 by Carl Linnaeus. (ref. genus Agrostemma)
  • Agros'tis: the Latin and Greek names for a type of grass, from Greek agron or agros, "field or pasture," undoubtedly a root word for "agriculture," referring to its habitat. The genus Agrostis was published in 1753 by Carl Linnaeus. (ref. genus Agrostis)
  • a'hartii/ahar'tii: named for Lowell William Ahart (1938- ), a collector of plants in Nevada and California, Sacramento Valley sheep rancher, and co-author with Vernon Oswald of Manual of the Vascular Plants of Butte County, California. He was the recipient of the 1997 Distinguished Service Award given by the Friends of the Biiological Sciences Herbarium at California State University, Chico. Two taxa new to science were found on his ranch. (ref. Juncus leiospermus var. ahartii, Paronychia ahartii)
  • Ailan'thus: from a Moluccan name ailanto meaning "sky tree." The genus Ailanthus was published in 1788 by René Louiche Desfontaines. (ref. genus Ailanthus)
  • airo'ides: like genus Aira. (ref. Sporobolus airoides)
  • aja'cis/a'jacis: after Ajax, the Greek hero who committed suicide during the siege of Troy. Supposedly a non-California species named Delphinium ajacis received the name because certain markings on the flower appeared like the Greek letters of Ajax's name. (ref. Cosolida ajacis)
  • ajugo'ides: like genus Ajuga, from the Greek a, "not, without," and the Latin jugum, "yoke," referring possibly to the undivided calyx. (ref. Stachys ajugoides)
  • Air'a: Umberto Quattrocchi says "From the ancient Greek name applied to another plant, possibly Lolium temulentum; Latin aera for a weed among grain, darnel, tare or cockle." The genus Aira was published in 1753 by Carl Linnaeus. (ref. genus Aira)
  • alainae: named for Alaina Tatiana Reiser (1982- ). (ref. Dudleya alainae)
  • alaman'ii: after Lucas Ignacio Alamán y Escalada (1792-1853), Mexican scientist, conservative politician, historian,
      and writer. He was born in Guanajuato. Wikipedia says: “He has been called the "arch-reactionary of the epoch...who sought to create a strong central government based on a close alliance of the army, the Church and the landed classes."Alamán was "undoubtedly the major political and intellectual figure of independent Mexico until his death in 1853...the guiding force of several administrations and an active promoter of economic development.” His father immigrated from Navarre, Spain. He studied at the Real Colegio de Minas de la Nueva España, in the Viceroyalty
    of New Spain (colonial México). He frequently traveled on his credentials as a scientist and diplomat, becoming one of the most educated men in Mexico. In 1821 he was a deputy in the Spanish national parliament for the province of Nueva Galicia in New Spain but returned to Mexico when it gained its independence that same year. He co-founded the Mexican Conservative party and was deeply involved in Mexican politics throughout the 1820s and 1830s. He created the first national bank in Mexico in 1830. He thought that the independence of Texas from Mexico in 1836 was a disaster and after that he largely retired from politics. He was however the head of the Directorate for the Promotion of Industry from 1839 until his death. The border he negotiated between Mexico and the United States was a fixed one up until the Mexican-American war of 1846-1848. The latter part of his life was occupied mainly with his writing of the history of Mexico, and he produced the three-volume Disertaciones sobre la Historia de la Republica mexicana (Mexico, 1844–1849) and the five-volume Historia de México, desde los primeros movimientos que prepararon su independencia en el año de 1808, hasta la época presente (Mexico, 1849–1852) which viewed the Spanish presence in Mexico favorably. He created the Natural History Museum in Mexico City and the General National Archive, and in 1849 was president of the Mexico City city council. He was in correspondence with Santa Anna and helped to facilitate his return to power. Santa Anna appointed him Minister of Foreign Relations and he served in that capacity until his death in Mexico City from pneumonia. (ref. Baccharis alamanii)
  • Alarcon'ia: named for Spanish explorer and navigator Hernando de Alarcón (1500?-1541?), not to be confused
      with the Spanish soldier Hernando de Alarcón (1466-1640). Little is known about his life, but he was probably born in Trujillo in present-day Extremadura, Spain, and although his death date is not known for certain, he was alive at least as recently as 1541, when he returned from his expedition to the coast of California. He began his expedition in 1540 and was ordered by Viceroy Don Antonio da Mendoça to reach a point on the coast where he was to await the arrival of Francisco Vasquéz de Coronado's overland expedition. Coronado’s goal had been to locate the
    Seven Cities of Cibola. In 1539 the Franciscan friar Friar Marcos de Niza had reported to Spanish officials that he had seen a city of fantastic wealth. Although Alarcón reached his appointed destination, Coronado never found this legendary place, and his rendezvous with Alarcón never took place, but he made maps with accurately detailed representations of the Gulf of California and the lower course of the Colorado River. He made two trips up the Colorado River, one extending past the site of what is today Yuma, Arizona. He established that Baja California was a peninsula and not an island as was previously thought. Most websites do not give a date of death for Alarcón, but several do indicate that he died on his return from the expedition in 1541. The book A Chronological History of the Discoveries in the South Seas Or Pacific Ocean published in 1803 by James Burney states: “The Viceroy was so much dissatisfied with the conduct of this expedition, that Alarcón, who had before been high in his favour, retired to one of the estates of the Marquis del Valle, where he shortly after died.” The genus Alarconia was published in 1836 by Augustin Pyramus de Candolle. (ref. genus Alarconia) (Photo credit: Glogster)
  • ala'ta: with appendaged wings or flanges, usually the stems or leaf petioles. (ref. Horsfordia alata)
  • alat'ernus: I have no definitive understanding of the meaning or derivation of this name. A number of different sources have proposed various ideas. This taxon has been described in the Jepson eFlora as a waif which originated in the Mediterranean region and has been referred to as Italian buckthorn, evergreen buckthorn or Mediterranean buckthorn. It is apparently the only taxon that bears this epithet. Clues to its roots include the following: Ala or plural alae is a diminutive for alula, “a wing,” and appears in specific epithets such as alata or alatus. -Tern or -ternus are suffixes which relate to the Latin terni, “three.” So one possibility would be three-winged, of unknown application. The fruit is three-stoned, so that’s also in play. Gledhill’s The Names of Plants says “alaternus: an old generic name for a buckthorn (= Rhamnus), resembling buckthorn's fissured bark." Wikipedia says: “The specific Latin name alaternus, assonant with "alternus" or “alternate”, refers to the alternate leaves.” A page on the International Plant Names Index says: “The epithet alaternus is a pre-Linnaean generic name (“Alaternus” of Clusius) and is a noun used in apposition, not an adjective; it is not to be corrected to “alaterna”.” This implies that the name goes back at least as far as Carolus Clusius (1526-1609), an Artois doctor and pioneering botanist, perhaps the most influential of all 16th-century scientific horticulturists. (ref. Rhamnus alaternus)
  • al'ba/al'bum/al'bus: white. (ref. Eclipta alba, Limnanthes alba, Morus alba, Populus alba, Reseda alba, Sinapsis alba [formerly Brassica hirta], Chenopodium album, Sedum album, Alternanthera albus, Amaranthus albus, Calochortus albus, Melilotus albus, Symphoricarpos albus)
  • al'bens: white. (ref. Astragalus albens, Stachys albens)
  • albertia'na: named for Albert von Saxe-Coburg and Gotha (1819-1861). He was born Albert Francis Charles Augustus
      Emmanuel of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha in Schloss Rosenau, Bavaria, and became HRH Prince Albert upon his marriage to his first cousin, Queen Victoria, in 1840 at the age of 20. He was educated privately at home and then studied in Brussels. He attended the University of Bonn in Germany where he studied law, political economy, philosophy and the history of art. He was not popular in England at first, and it was seventeen years after his marriage that he was finally granted the title of prince consort of the United Kingdom and Ireland. Having no real power of his own, he became
    the Queen’s private secretary and adviser, and she tended to listen to his advice, which was usually level-headed and sage. Throughout the years of his happy marriage, he wielded his influence with grace, discretion and intelligence, and the couple had nine children, all of whom survived to adulthood, and 42 grandchildren. It was Albert who encouraged Victoria to take a greater interest in social welfare issues, including child labor, and suggested she favor a stance of political neutrality. In 1840 he and his pregnant wife were the targets of an assassin but thankfully were not hurt, and later that year Albert was designated by parliament as regent in the event of Victoria's death before their child reached the age of majority. The Prime Minister appointed Albert chairman of the Royal Commission in charge of redecorating the new Palace of Westminster to replace the Palace which had burned down seven years before, and was being rebuilt. In 1842 the Queen and Prince Albert were shot at again, but again were unhurt. In addition to Osborne House on the Isle of Wight which Albert was able to purchase as a private family residence, he managed and improved other royal estates. He had access to all the Queen's papers, drafted her correspondence, and was present when she met her ministers, or even saw them alone in her absence. The clerk of the Privy Council, Charles Greville, wrote of him: "He is King to all intents and purposes." In 1847 he was elected Chancellor of the University of Cambridge. He led reforms in university education, welfare, the royal finances and slavery, and he had a special interest in applying science and art to the manufacturing industry. He spearheaded the Great Exhibition of 1851, a World's Fair event celebrating British industrial advancement and culture, which was attended by such luminaries as Charles Darwin, Charlotte Bronte and Lewis Carroll. In 1859 he came close to being killed when he had to leap from a runaway carriage. His last months were marred by the so-called Trent Affair with the United States, the deaths of two of his young cousins from typhus, the death of the Queen Mother, the Duchess of Kent, and the marital indiscretions of his son, the Prince of Wales. On Dec. 9, 1861, at the age of 42, he fell ill and died five days later at Windsor Castle. The contemporary diagnosis was typhoid fever, but modern writers have pointed out that Albert's ongoing stomach pain, leaving him ill for at least two years before his death, may indicate that a chronic disease, such as Crohn's disease, renal failure, or abdominal cancer, was the cause of death. Queen Victoria was so distraught at Albert's passing that she wore black in mourning for the rest of her life, which lasted 40 more years. She erected numerous monuments to Albert's legacy, and a re-examination of Albert's life let the public finally view him as the respectable and honorable figure he always was. He was President of the Society for the Extinction of Slavery, the Society for the Improvement of the Condition of the Labouring Classes, and the British Association for the Advancement of Science. Numerous places and objects were named for him following his death, and a great many British and foreign honors were heaped on him. (ref. Abies albertiana)
  • alberti'na: possibly of or from Alberta. (ref. Draba albertina)
  • albes'cens: becoming white.
  • albi-, albo-: a prefix indicating the characteristic of being white-colored.
  • al'bicans: whitish. (ref. Asclepias albicans)
  • albicau'lis: white-stemmed. (ref. Mentzelia albicaulis)
  • al'bida/al'bidum/al'bidus: white. (ref. Carex albida, Ericameria albida, Mirabilis albida)
  • albiflor'um/albiflor'us: white-flowered. (ref. Hieracium albiflorum)
  • albifo'lius: white-leaved. (ref. Astragalus lentiginosus var. albifolius)
  • Albiz'ia: sometimes spelled Albizzia, and named after Filippo del Albizzi, 18th century Florentine nobleman who introduced the plant Albizia julibrissin into cultivation in 1749. The genus Albizia was published in 1772 by Antonio Durazzini. (ref. genus Albizia)
  • albomacula'ta: white-spotted.
  • albomargina'ta/albomargina'tus: white-margined. (ref. Euphorbia albomarginata, Swertia [formerly Frasera] albomarginata, Penstemon albomarginatus)
  • alboni'gra: black and white. (ref. Carex albonigra)
  • albopilo'sus: white-haired.
  • albopurpur'eum: from the root words for white and purple, in reference to the color of the flower. (ref. Trifolium albopurpureum)
  • al'bula: whitish.
  • Al'cea: from the Greek alkea or alkaia and the Latin alcea, "a kind of mallow." The genus Alcea was published in 1753 by Carl Linnaeus. (ref. genus Alcea)
  • Alchemil'la: takes its name from some plant valued for its use in alchemy. The genus Alchemilla was published in 1753 by Carl Linnaeus. (ref. genus Alchemilla)
  • Alda'ma: for Ignacio Aldama y Gonzales (1769-1811), Mexican insurgent and law student who devoted himself to
      agriculture and trade, and later with his brother Juan became involved in a Mexican independence movement in 1810. He joined the movement that ultimately became the Mexican War of Independence and assumed the municipal and military leadership of San Miguel el Grande. As Mayor of San Miguel el Grande (now San Miguel de Allende where he was born), he recognized Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla as the leader of the insurgent movement. As field marshal of the troops led by Hidalgo y Costilla, for whom he had been a legal and political advisor, he was unable to
    prevail and their forces were defeated by the royalist army of the Spanish marshal Félix Calleja. He was later appointed a representative to the United States for the purpose of gaining their support, and was attempting to travel there to secure weapons when he was arrested by royalist forces, tried and executed by firing squad. The genus Aldama was published in 1824 by Pablo de La Llave. (ref. genus Aldama)
  • alderson'ii: named after Rufus Davis Alderson (1858-1932), He was born in Alderson, Virginia (now West Virginia).
      He taught for three years in West Virginia, then attented the National Normal School in Lebanon, Ohio, receiving a B.S. degree in 1882 after studying botany, zoology, natural philosophy, physiology, herbarium and astronomy. He taught for two more years and then was the proprietor and editor of the Alderson Statesman. He was also a member of the state legislature. In 1887 he moved to San Diego where he worked for a while in a print shop, and then from 1889 to 1897 taught at a number of schools. In 1897 he was listed as living in Del Mar, but being in somewhat
    frail health he moved back to West Virginia where he took up cattle breeding and dairy farming. His daughter remembers him as a man with an inquisitive mind and broad interests. He collected plants in San Diego County from 1891 to 1896 and corresponded with E.L. Greene at the University of California. He also sent Greene a large shipment of collected specimens for identification. He had plants identified by Samuel Parish and was acquainted with T.S. Brandegee. Altogether he probably collected in excess of 12,000 specimens from the area near where he lived, and also from the Cuyamaca Mountains and from the Colorado Desert. (ref. Phacelia aldersonii, Rosa aldersonii) (Photo credit: Madrono, Vol. 16, No. 7, July, 1962)
  • alefeld'ii/ale'feldii: after Friedrich Christoph Wilhelm Alefeld (1820-1872), sometimes listed as Friedrich Georg Christoph Alefeld, a German botanist, physician and horticulturist who studied particularly the Leguminosae and the Malvaceae. (ref. Lathyrus vestitus var. alefeldii)
  • alep'picum: of or from Aleppo, in northwestern Syria near the Mediterranean Sea. (ref. Geum aleppicum)
  • aleu'ticum: of or from the area of the Aleutian Islands off the Alaskan coast. (ref. Adiantum aleuticum)
  • alexan'derae/alexan'drae: after Annie Montague Alexander (1867-1950), intrepid explorer, amateur naturalist,
      skilled markswoman, philanthropist, farmer, and founder and patron of two natural history museums at the University of California, Berkeley, a pioneer who helped shape the world of science in California. Alexander's father founded a Hawaiian sugar empire, and his great wealth afforded his adventurous daughter the opportunity to pursue her many interests. [She was] a complex, intelligent, woman who--despite her frail appearance--was determined to achieve something with her life. Along with Louise Kellogg, her partner of forty years, Alexander
    collected thousands of animal, plant, and fossil specimens throughout western North America. Their collections serve as an invaluable record of the flora and fauna that were beginning to disappear as the West succumbed to spiraling population growth, urbanization, and agricultural development. Today at least seventeen taxa are named for Alexander, and several others honor Kellogg, who continued to make field trips after Alexander's death. Alexander's dealings with scientists and her encouragement - and funding - of women to do field research earned her much admiration, even from those with whom she clashed. Her legacy endures in the fields of zoology and paleontology and also in the lives of women who seek to follow their own star to the fullest degree possible. (Excerpted from a description of the book On Her Own Terms: Annie Montague Alexander and the Rise of Science in the American West by Barbara R. Stein, published 2001 by the University of California Press). Annie's father deserves much of the credit for the arc of her life because he (and she) was not limited by gender expectations, and believed that her curiosity should be encouraged and developed to the fullest extent possible. In addition to sharing adventures on mountains and in deserts, he taught her about finance and business. In 1901 she began auditing classes in paleontology at the University of California in Berkeley, and was soon accompanying and financing paleontological expeditions. Even into her seventies she proved to be one of the most resilient and resourceful members of any outing she participated in. In 1904 she was in Africa where at Victoria Falls her father was crushed and killed by a landslide in front of her. She was responsible for creating the Museum of Vertebrate Zoology at Berkeley, a scientific institution which would become a national leader in vertebrate biology. She subsequently created a Museum of Paleontology to match the Museum of Vertebrate Zoology, and personally organized and led several expeditions to stock its store rooms. It was ini her seventies that her focus turned to botany. She and her life partner Louise Kellogg collected thousands of specimens for the University Herbarium at Berkeley. Earlier in her life reading and other close work gave her massive migraines, and it was recommended that some of the muscles to her eyeballs be cut, a procedure which was carried out with little effect, and it was this limitation that prevented her from graduating from college. Nevertheless she became of the most consequential figures in the history of paleontology and evolutionary biology. A stroke and a long coma finally ended the life of a woman who was truly a giant in her field. (ref. Eriogonum ochrocephalum var. alexanderae, Swallenia alexandrae)
  • al'gida/al'gidus: cold, originating in high mountains, from Latin algeo, "to be cold" (ref. Hulsea algida)
  • Alha'gi: Arabic for "pilgrim." The genus Alhagi was published in 1755 by Abraham Gagnebin. (ref. genus Alhagi)
  • al'iceae: after Alice Eastwood (1859-1953), botanical curator for the California Academy of Sciences, who in a
      damaged building saved 1,500 priceless type specimens representing 53 years of collecting after the 1906 San Francisco earthquake. Born in Canada, her interest in flowers was initiated by her country doctor uncle, and she later taught herself botany and became a respected collector while teaching in Colorado, where more than a dozen native plants bear her name. She joined Katherine Brandegee in 1892 as joint Curator of Botany for the California Academy of Sciences, succeeding her in 1894, and remained in that post for fifty-five years until she retired at the age of 90.  In the
    1930s and 1940s she spent a great deal of time collecting with her assistant John Thomas Howell, himself a recognized botanist who succeeded her as Curator.  She was honored by Townsend Brandegee who named a new genus after her, Eastwoodia, after she came upon a new sunflower on one of her trips. (ref. Erigeron aliceae)
  • alic'iae: named after Dr. Alice Rasse. (ref. Drosera aliciae)
  • Aliciel'la: named for Alice Eastwood (see eastwoodiae). The genus Aliciella was published in 1905 by August Brand. (ref. genus Aliciella)
  • a'lipes: ali is a Latin word word one of whose meanings is "a wing," and the ending pes refers to the stalk (see brevipes, planipes), so possibly something like "winged stalk" (?). (ref. Mirabilis alipes)
  • aliquan'ta: from the Latin meaning "somewhat," "moderate, of some size," or "a certain amount, number," of unknown application. (ref. Gilia aliquanta ssp. aliquanta, Gilia aliquanta ssp. breviloba)
  • -alis: Latin adjectival suffix meaning belonging to or pertaining to something (e.g. dorsalis, "dorsal" from dorsum, "back"; autumnalis, "pertaining to autumn, autumnal" from autumnus, "autumn"; occidentalis, "having to do with the West" from occidens, "west"), takes the form -aris after stems which end in 'l' as in stellaris, fascicularis and avicularis.
  • Alis'ma: a Greek name for a water plant. The genus Alisma was published in 1753 by Carl Linnaeus. (ref. genus Alisma)
  • alismaefo'lium: with leaves like Alisma.
  • alismel'lus: I am uncertain of the meaning of this name except that it seems to be related to the same root word as in the name Alisma for a water plant. The Latin suffix -ellus means "small," so this probably means a small Alisma. (var. Ranunculus alismifolius var. alismellus)
  • alismifo'lius: see alismaefolium above. (ref. Ranunculus alismifolius)
  • allenii: after Robert Lee ('Bob' or 'Bugbob') Allen (1959- ), American botanist, entomologist, photographer, author
      and university professor from Orange County, He got his B.S. in Environmental and Systematic Biology from Cal Poly San Luis Obispo in 1982 and an M.S. in Environmental Studies from Cal State Fullerton in 2006. He taught entomology and biological illustration at CSUF and has since taught nature photography, entomology, botany and pollination. He has been a Research Associate at Rancho Santa Ana Botanic Garden and a Research Associate in Entomology at the Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County. He has taught classes at the Fullerton Arboretum, Santa
    Ana College and Rancho Santa Ana. He is the co-author along with Fred Roberts of Wildflowers of Orange County and the Santa Ana Mountains. With his deep knowledge of both plants and insects, he excels in understanding and explaining how and by what plants are pollinated. (ref. Pentachaeta aurea ssp. allenii)
  • Allenrol'fea: named in honor of Robert Allen Rolfe (1855-1921), an English botanist and the first taxonomist of
      orchids for the Royal Botanic Gardens at Kew and first Curator of the Orchid Herbarium. He established the oldest orchid publication called The Orchid Review in 1893 and began keeping careful records of the hybridizing of species of orchids, co-authoring the first catalog of orchid hyrids. He began work in the gardens in 1879 and transferred to the Herbarium the following year, and it was Sir Joseph Hooker who advised him to make orchids his specialty. He suffered from hearing loss and had never travelled, and it was on the eve of his first trip abroad, to Central and
    South America at the age of 65, that he was struck with the brain tumor that killed him within a fairly short span of time. He apparently went by the name R. Allen Rolfe, and the German botanist Carl Ernst Otto Kuntze who named the genus in his honor in 1891 used the name Allen Rolfe in his dedication, which may explain why it is called Allenrolfea and not Robertrolfea or Robertallenrolfea. (ref. genus Allenrolfea)
  • Allio'nia: named for Carlo Ludovico Allioni (1728-1804), professor of botany at Turin, naturalist, physician,
      contemporary and friend of Linnaeus, and exponent of the natural classification of plants. After becoming a physician in 1747, like so many other would-be doctors, his interest soon shifted to the world of the natural sciences and to botany and plant species in particular, and his early work on the rare species of the Piedmont region brought him to the attention of Carl Linnaeus. He became a professor of botany at the University of Turin in 1760, and his support for and belief in Linnaeus’ system of binomial nomenclature caused him to be referred to by some as the Piedmontese
    Linnaeus. In 1763 he took over management of the botanical garden of Turin, becoming Director of the Museum of Natural History and of the Botanical Garden, and under his leadership the number of species held by the garden rose from 317 to 4,500. According to Wikipedia, “His most important work was the Flora Pedemontana, sive enumeratio methodica stirpium indigenarum Pedemontii, published in 1785 in two volumes of text and a volume of iconography, in which he described the medicinal virtues of 2,813 species of plants in the Piedmont area, of which 237 [were] new species. This treaty [is] considered still today one of the most important floristic works in Europe…” He also held the position of first treasurer of the Royal Academy of Sciences of Turin. Botany was not his only interest however, to which was added zoology, geology, entomology, minerology and the study of fossils. Linnaeus published the genus name Allionia in his honor in 1759. (ref. genus Allionia)
  • Al'lium: Latin for "garlic." The genus Allium was published in 1753 by Carl Linnaeus. (ref. genus Allium)
  • allochro'us: of different color (purple petals, contrasted to whitish to pale yellow in A. douglasii). (ref. Astragalus allochrous var. playanus)
  • Allophyl'lum: from the Greek allos, "diverse," and phyllum, "leaves." The genus Allophyllum was published in 1955 by Alva Day Grant and Verne Edwin Grant. (ref. genus Allophyllum)
  • Allotro'pa: from the Greek allos, "different or other," and trope, "a turning." (ref. genus Allotropa)
  • al'ma: nourishing, bountiful. (ref. Carex alma)
  • Almutas'ter: for American botanist and plant systematist Almut Gitter Jones (Mrs. George Neville Jones) (1923-2013). She received a B.S. degree with high honors in agriculture from the University of Illinois in 1958, completed her M.S. degree in botany with a minor in agronomy from UI in 1960, and in 1973 received her Ph.D. from the Botany Department at UI specializing in plant taxonomy with a minor in agronomy. During her career, she held various positions in plant biology, and was Curator of the UI Herbarium until her retirement. Her field of research centered on the plant genus Aster and she published many papers about the systematics of this large, complicated group of species, being recognized nationally and internationally as an authority. The genus Almutaster was published in 1982 by Áskell Löve and Doris Benta Maria Löve. (ref. genus Almutaster)
  • alnifo'lia: with leaves like genus Alnus. (ref. Amelanchier alnifolia, Rhamnus alnifolia)
  • Al'nus: the classical Latin name for this genus. (ref. genus Alnus)
  • A'loe: an ancient Greek name. The genus Aloe was published by Carl Linnaeus in 1753. (ref. genus Aloe)
  • alo'ides: aloe-like. (ref. Dudleya saxosa ssp. aloides)
  • alopecuro'ides: like genus Alopecurus. (ref. Crypsis alopecuroides)
  • alopecu'ros: see following entry. (ref. Bromus alopecuros)
  • Alopecur'us: from the Greek alopekouros, meaning a grass like a fox's tail, in turn from alopex, "fox," and oura, "a tail," from the paniculate form of the spike. The genus Alopecurus was published in 1753 by Carl Linnaeus. (ref. genus Alopecurus)
  • Aloy'sia: named in honor of Queen Maria Luisa Teresa (1751-1819), Princess of Parma and wife of King Carlos
      IV of Spain (Carlos Antonio Pascual Francisco Javier Juan Nepomuceno José Januario Serafín Diego (Bourbon) de España). She was the daughter of Philip, Duke of Parma, and mother of King Ferdinand VII. She was engaged to be married at the age of 13 and married her cousin Carl, the crown prince, in 1765, rising to the throne in 1788. Charles IV's cousin Louis XVI was beheaded by French revolutionaries in 1793 and war fever gripped Spain. Queen Maria supported the alliance with Napoleon, and in 1800 Spain signed an agreement which returned Louisiana to
    France. Royal plotting by Ferdinand caused factional chaos in Spain and Napoleon forced the abdication of both Carl IV and his queen who went into exile in France and never returned to Spain. Maria Luisa and her husband eventually died in Rome. When French forces invaded the country, much of the blame for the abdication fell on Maria Luisa. The genus Aloysia was published in 1784 by Spanish botanist Antonio Paláu y Verdera and is a Latinized form of the name Louisa/Luisa. The genus Aloysia was published in 1784 by Antonio Paláu y Verdera. (ref. genus Aloysia [formerly Lippia])
  • alpes'tre/alpes'tris: of the lower mountains, with the implication of coming from below the timberline, though not necessarily. (ref. Heuchera alpestris, Lupinus alpestris)
  • alpico'la: dwelling in high mountains, preferring the habitat of alpine regions. (ref. Linum lewisii var. alpicola)
  • alpig'ena/alpig'enum/alpig'enus: alpine. (ref. Chaenactis alpigena, Eriogonum kennedyi var. alpigenum, Oreostemma alpigenum var. andersonii)
  • alpi'na/alpi'num/alpi'nus: of an alpine origin or habit. (ref. Abronia alpina, Circaea alpina, Dodecatheon alpinum, Phleum alpinum, Potamogeton alpinus)
  • alsino'ides: like genus Alsine, a Greek and Latin name given to some plant possibly a chickweed. (ref. Mimulus alsinoides, Pentachaeta alsinoides)
  • alter'nans: alternating. (ref. Physocarpus alternans)
  • Alternanther'a/Alternan'thera: from the Latin alternus, "alternate," and anthera, "anthers," referring to the alternating stamens and staminodia. The genus Alternanthera was published by Pehr Forsskål in 1775. (ref. genus Alternanthera)
  • alterniflor'a: alternate-flowered, with flowers on either side of a stem and not opposite to each other. (ref. Spartina alterniflora)
  • alternifo'lius: alternate-leaved.
  • Althae'a: from the Greek althaino, "to cure," from the use of some species as medicines. The genus Althaea was published by Carl Linnaeus in 1753. (ref. genus Althaea)
  • althaeifo'lia: with leaves like Althaea. (ref. Proboscidea althaeifolia)
  • althaeo'ides: like the hollyhock, genus Althaea, from the Greek althaia "a cure, something that heals." (ref. Convolvulus althaeoides)
  • alti-: a prefix indicating the characteristic of being tall.
  • altico'la: dwelling in high places. (ref. Camissonia sierrae ssp. alticola)
  • altis'sima/altis'simum/altis'simus: very tall, tallest. (ref. Ailanthus altissima, Solidago altissima, Sisymbrium altissimum)
  • al'tus: tall.
  • alverson'ii: after Andrew Halstead Alverson (1845-1916), born in New Haven, CT, and grew up near Kingston, WI, before moving back to New Haven about 1868, where he worked mostly as a bank clerk, although he was also for a time a wholesale and retail dealer and a minor inventor. In 1877, Alverson and two other men came to Calif. to locate a "colony" for settlers from New Haven, and selected a spot near present Redlands, but the project fell through due to the lack of a sufficient water supply. He returned in 1883 and settled at first at Lugonia. In July, 1887, he advertised "A. H. Alverson at the Lugonia Post Office Store has opened a first class stock of Jewelry, Clocks, Watches, Stationery, Musical goods, Confectionery, Fine toilet articles, Tobacco and cigars.." (In August, the same ad ran with his brother's initials.) He also became involved in prospecting and mining. At some point he began collecting and propagating cacti for sale. Edmund Jaeger wrote that he was told that Alverson collected carefully and did not over-collect (Information from David Hollombe). According to Edmund Jaeger, Alverson was a jeweler, minerologist and cacti and succulent dealer, who made several prospecting trips into the Eagle and Chuckawalla Mountains. (ref. Coryphantha alversonii)
  • al'vordiana/alvordia'na: after William Alvord (1833-1904), born in Albany, NY, and a mayor of San Francisco,
      1871-1873. His first trade was the hardware business which he started in New York City in 1850. Three years later he moved his business to Marysville, California, and then to San Francisco. The stress of the work and business degraded his health and he moved to Europe to regain it, returning in 1871, after which time he almost immediately was put up for Mayor of San Francisco, and office he held for two years. He was associated with the companies Pacific Rolling Mills and Risdon Iron and Locomotive Works. He helped to reestablish the Bank of California after its crash
    in 1875. In 1878 he was elected President of the Bank of California. He also served at different times as park commissioner and police commissioner. He was president of several associations such as the American Forestry Association in 1890-91, the Astronomical Society of the Pacific in 1898, and the California Academy of Schools, demonstrating the wide range of his interests. He corresponded with George Engelmann. Quercus Xalvordiana was first published in 1905, the year after his death, by Alice Eastwood. (ref. Quercus Xalvordiana) (Photo credit: Find-a-Grave)
  • alysso'ides: like genus Alyssum. (ref. Alyssum alyssoides, Camissonia boothii ssp. alyssoides)
  • Alys'sum: from the Greek a, "not or without," and lyssa, "madness," it was said to cure rabies. The genus Alyssum was published in 1753 by Carl Linnaeus. (ref. genus Alyssum)
  • ama'bilis: beautiful. (ref. Calochortus amabilis, Phacelia amabilis)
  • Amaran'thus: from the Greek amarantos, "unfading," referring to the long-lasting flowers. The genus Amaranthus was published by Carl Linnaeus in 1753. (ref. genus Amaranthus)
  • amarel'la: bitter. (ref. Gentianella [formerly Gentiana] amarella)
  • amargo'sae: of or from the region of the Amargosa Mountains in Death Valley (ref. Penstemon fructiciformis var. amargosae)
  • amar'um: bitter to the taste. (ref. Ribes amarum)
  • Amaryl'lis: from Stearn's Dictionary of Plant Names: "...named after a beautiful shepherdess Amaryllis in classical poetry and equally irresistible to the English pastoral poets of the 16th and 17th centuries. The genus Amaryllis was published by Carl Linnaeus in 1753. (ref. genus Amaryllis)
  • Amauriop'sis: resembling genus Amauria. The genus Amauriopsis was published by Per Axel Rydberg in 1914. (ref. genus Amauriopsis)
  • ambig'ua/ambig'uum/ambig'uus: doubtful, of uncertain identity. (ref. Cistanthe ambigua, Phacelia crenulata var. ambigua, Sphaeralcea ambigua, Eriophyllum ambiguum, Linanthus ambiguus)
  • amblyo'don: blunt-toothed.
  • Amblyopap'pus: from the Greek amblus, "blunt," and pappos, "pappus." The genus Amblyopappus was published in 1841 by William Jackson Hooker and George Arnott Walker Arnott. (ref. genus Amblyopappus)
  • Ambro'sia: Greek for "food of the gods." The genus Ambrosia was published by Carl Linnaeus in 1753. (ref. genus Ambrosia)
  • ambrosio'ides: like the genus Ambrosia. (ref. Ambrosia ambrosioides, Dysphania ambrosioides)
  • ambustico'la: from the Latin root ambust or ambustus, "burned up, consumed, scorched," and the word ending -cola, "dwelling in or inhabiting," thus meaning "a dweller of burned areas" which applies to this taxon. (ref. Hesperevax acaulis var. ambusticola)
  • Amelan'chier: from amelancier, an old French Provencal common name applied to A. ovalis. The common name serviceberry comes from 'sarvis' or 'servis berry' because of its resemblance to Sorbus domestica, the service tree. Amelanchier has various other common names including shadbush, shadwood, shadblow, wild pear, juneberry, saskatoon, sugarplum, wild plum and and chuckley pear. The genus Amelanchier was published in 1789 by Friedrich Kasimir Medikus (ref. genus Amelanchier)
  • Amelichlo'a: named for María Amelia Torres (1934-2011), Argentine botanist and professor of biology. She was born
      in Tandil, province of Buenos Aires, where she spent her childhood and adolescence. She graduated in 1953, with a  bachelor's degree from the General San Martin Mixed Normal School of his native city. In 1966 she received a degree in botany and graduated as a professor of biology. from the Faculty of Natural Sciences and Museum of the National University of La Plata, and in 1976 a Ph.D. in natural sciences at the same university. She studied the Poaceae and visited almost all Argentine provinces.and collaborated in a floristic survey that covered
    Tierra del Fuego, Anrarctica and the South Atlantic islands in 1967. She worked as a teacher in various capacities for a number of years, was a researcher in the Herbarium of the Vascular Plants Division of the Museum of La Plata, and became Curator in 1986. She was a tireless and extremely thorough curator, a virtue that was reflected in the excellent functioning of the Herbarium during its working period and that today benefits everyone who works with the Division's collections. The genus Amelichloa was published by Mirta O. Arriaga and Mary Elizabeth Barkworth in 2006. (ref. genus Amelichloa)
  • america'na/american'um/american'us: American. (ref. Agave americana, Jamesia americana, Kochia americana, Phytolacca americana, Veronica americana, Vicia americana, Solanum americanum, Lycopus americanus, Schoenoplectus americanus)
  • Ames'ia: named after Oakes Ames (1874-1950), American botanist who specialized in orchids. He was born in North
      Easton, Massachusetts, son of Givernor Oliver Ames. He collected his first orchids at the age of 15. He received an A.B. degree from Harvard in 1898 and an A.M. in 1899. Wikipedia says: “Ames spent his entire professional career at Harvard. As administrator, he was Assistant Director (1899-1909) and Director of the Botanic Garden (1909-1922); Curator (1923-1927), Supervisor (1927-1937), Director (1937-1945), and Associate Director of the Botanic Museum (1945-1950); Chairman of the Division of Biology (1926-1935) and Chairman of the Council of Botanical
    Collections and Supervisor of the Biological Laboratory, the Atkins Garden in Cuba, and the Arnold Arboretum (1927-1935). As teacher, he was an instructor in botany (1900-1910), associate professor of botany (1915-1926), professor of botany (1926-1932) and Arnold professor of botany (1932-1935). From 1935 to 1941 he was a research professor of botany. He was elected a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1911. The Orchidaceae were little-known before Ames' study and classification. He made expeditions to Florida, the Caribbean, the Philippines, and Central and South America, with his wife creating scientifically accurate drawings of the plants they cataloged. The Ames' work was published in the seven-volume Orchidicae: Illustrations and Studies of the Family Orchidicae. They also developed the Ames Charts, illustrating the phylogenetic relationships of the major useful plants, which are still used. Ames built up an extensive orchid herbarium, with library, photographs, and paintings, which he gave to Harvard in 1938. Today the Orchid Herbarium of Oakes Ames contains about 131,000 specimens, plus 3,000 flowers in glycerine, 4,000 pickled specimens, and hundreds of line drawings. Its library includes about 5,000 books, reprints, and journals.” The website of the Harvard University Herbaria says: “Ames also had an interest in economic botany. This became his other major field of study after he taught a course "Outlines of Economic Botany" in 1909-1910, and a few years later gave several lectures on medical botany at the Harvard School of Tropical Medicine (Shultes 73-74). His devotion to economic botany led Ames to collect what might be the most complete library and herbarium on the subject, both of which are now part of the Harvard University Herbaria. Oaks Ames's accomplishments were not limited to scholarship and collecting, however. As Director of the Botanical Museum, he "initiated a program of research and publication" as well as seeking (and finding) the financial support neccesary for the creation of an endowment fund (Mangelsdorf xiii). The Botanical Museum Leaflets of Harvard University began publication during his tenure with the museum, and did not cease publication until over 50 years later, in 1986. Ames was also "instrumental in raising the Charles Sprague Sargent Memorial Fund" during his time as Supervisor of the Arnold Arboretum (Mangelsdorf xiii). This fund more than doubled the Arboretum's endowment and allowed for its growth in many areas, as well as making it possible for the Arboretum staff to more fully participate as part of the Department of Biology. During WWI, Ames was part of the Botanical Raw Products Comittee of the National Research Council. WWII saw economic botany become even more important to the war effort, and many of Professor Ames's former students were called into government service to solve the botanical problems facing the nation.” The genus Amesia was published in 1913 by Aven Nelson and J.F. Macbride. (ref. genus Amesia) (Photo credit: Harvard University Herbaria)
  • ames'iae: named for Mary Ellen Pulsifer (Mrs. Charles Cooper Ames) (1845-1902). The following is from Joseph Ewan, "San Francisco as a Mecca for Nineteenth Century Naturalists" (1955): "Comparatively little is known of Mary E. Pulsifer Ames of Auburn, whose plant collections, like those of Mrs. Austin, are occasionally cited in the Botany of California, particularly the second volume. She was evidently at one time a resident of Taylorsville, Indian Valley, a correspondent of C. Keck of Austria, as was Mrs. Austin, and a contributor to the California Horticulturist and Floral Magazine. Astragalus pulsiferae of Plumas County was named in her memory by Asa Gray. She died at San Jose, at the age of fifty-seven." And from an article in the San Jose Mercury, 21 March 1902, that contains a perhaps overly complimentary tribute by her sister: "In the death of Mrs. Mary E. Pulsifer Ames at her home at No. 43 Webster street, East San Jose, yesterday afternoon, there was lost to the world, except that her works will live after her, a distinguished woman--one whose fame as a botanist was world-wide, and especially honored in the Royal Botanical Directory of Austria. So quietly and unassumingly did she live, largely content with the society of her aged mother and loving sister, her husband having died some years ago, that it can be truthfully said that she was better known in the world of science and of letters than in her home city. One who knew her best and loved her most, her sister, Miss Martha Pulsifer pays the following tribute to her memory: 'May E. Pulsifer Ames, elder daughter of John W. and Salina Pulsifer, was born in Lowell, Mass., March 2, 1845. From a very young child she was passionately fond of books and was a natural student, showing a fondness for all studies, the arts as well as the sciences. She posessed great artistic talent, and had she fully cultivated the gift would have risen to equal fame as an artist and botanist. Botany being her life-long study. The greater part of her education was received in the Academy of Notre Dame, Lowell and at the College of Notre Dame in San Jose. She was frail of constitution, her poor health at all times interfering with the progress of her studies. The most serious impediment was an affliction of the eyes, an affection of the optic nerve from which she was practically blind for nearly three years. To the good well-behaved Sisters of Notre Dame she said she owed every success she achieved in life, and to her alma mater, the College of Notre Dame, to which she was ever loyal and devoted, she bequeathed her exquisite and extensive collection of valuable plants, books and stones, in grateful memory as she often said of the home where she had learned 'the beautiful sciences' to which she devoted her pure, serene and lofty life. Her monumental work lives after her, and future generations will draw inspiration from her uplifting and indefatigable labors. Her fame as a botanist was world-wide; her name being an honored in the Royal Botanical Directory of Austria. Her correspondence was large and varied among the leading botanists of the world. Her last days, and almost hours, were spent in classifying her plants, a large and choice collection, from many European countries as well as the United States." (ref. Camptothecium amesiae)
  • amethys'tina/amethys'tinus: having a violet color. (ref. Hackellia amethystina)
  • amic'tum: from the Latin amictus, "wrapped up." (ref. Ribes roezlii var. amictum)
  • Amman'nia: named for Paul Ammann (1634-1691), a German botanist and professor at Leipzig. The genus Ammannia was published by Carl Linnaeus in 1753. (ref. genus Ammannia)
  • am'mei: named after David G. Amme (1948- ), long associated with the East Bay Regional Park District who is known for his work on native grass horticulture, grassland restoration, and roadside management, and as a distinguished author on environmental matters. He received his Master’s degree from UC Berkeley and is a founding member of the California Native Grass Association. He has been involved in California grassland ecology as a private resource management consultant, state park resource ecologist, and most recently as an environmental planner for Caltrans. (ref. Eriogonum x ammei)
  • Am'mi: according to Umberto Quattrocchi, an ancient Latin name for an umbelliferous plant, possibly from the Greek ammos for "sand." The genus Ammi was published by Carl Linnaeus in 1753. (ref. genus Ammi)
  • Ammobro'ma: from the Greek ammos, "sand," and broma, "food," the single Southern California representative of this former genus having been added by Jepson to the genus Pholisma, the common name of which is sand-food, and once an important food for the local indians. The genus Ammobroma was published in 1854 by John Torrey. (ref. genus Ammobroma)
  • Ammophi'la/ammophi'lum: sand-loving, growing in sandy places. The genus Ammophila was published in 1809 by Nicolaus Thomas Host. (ref. genus Ammophila, also Erysimum ammophilum)
  • Ammoseli'num: from the Greek ammos, "sand," and Selinum, an Old World genus of the carrot family. The genus Ammoselinum was published by John Torrey and Asa Gray in 1855. (ref. genus Ammoselinum)
  • amnico'la: dwelling by a river (ref. Atriplex amnicola)
  • amoe'na/amoe'num/amoe'nus: pleasant or lovely. (ref. Clarkia affinis ssp. amoena, Trifolium amoenum, Calochortus amoenus)
  • Amor'pha: from a Greek word amorphos signifying "deformed," an allusion to the single petal of the flower. The genus Amorpha was published in 1753 by Carl Linnaeus. (ref. genus Amorpha)
  • Ampelodes'mos: from the Latin and Greek ampelodesmos, an old name for the species Lygeum spartum which was used in Sicily for tying up vines. The genus Ampelodesmos was published by Johann Heinrich Friedrich Link in 1827.(ref. genus Ampelodesmos)
  • amphi-/ampho-: Greek prefix meaning "on both sides, around, both, double."
  • amphib'ia/amphib'ium: amphibious, suited for or adapted to growing on land or in the water. (ref. Persicaria amphibia)
  • amphibo'lus: I am assuming that this is an alternate spelling and derives from the Greek amphibolos, meaning "ambiguous or doubtful." (ref. Micropus amphibolus)
  • Amphibro'mus: from the Greek amphi, " both, on both sides," and the Poaceae genus Bromus. The genus Amphibromus was published by Christian Gottfried Daniel Nees von Esenbeck in 1843. (ref. genus Amphibromus)
  • Amphipap'pus: from the Greek amphi, "both kinds of or double," and pappos, "pappus," the pappus being double. The genus Amphipappus was published in 1845 by John Torrey and Asa Gray. (ref. genus Amphipappus)
  • Amphiscir'pus: from amphi, "both, around," and the grass genus Scirpus. The genus Amphiscirpus was published by Alfred Apau Oteng-Yeboah in 1874. (ref. genus Amphiscirpus)
  • amplec'tans: embracing, clasping with the base. (ref. Allium amplectans, Berberis amplectans, Trifolium amplectans)
  • amplexicau'le/amplexicau'lis: with the leaf base clasping the stem. (ref. Heliotropium amplexicaule, Lamium amplexicaule, Arnica amplexicaulis, Caulanthus amplexicaulis)
  • amplexifo'lius: with clasping leaves (ref. Streptopus amplexifolius)
  • amplia'tus: enlarged.
  • amplifauca'lis: possibly from the Latin amplio, "to make large or ample," or amplus, "large," and fauces, "gullet, the back area of the mouth, the passage from the mouth to the pharynx" thus meaning something like "amply-throated or large-throated." (ref. Gilia tenuiflora ssp. amplifaucalis)
  • amplifo'lia/amplifo'lius: from the Latin ampli or amplus, "large, spacious," and folia, "leaves." (ref. Carex amplifolia, Potamogeton amplifolius)
  • amplis'sima: very large. (ref. Calystegia macrostegia ssp. amplissima)
  • ampulla'ceum: flask-like. (ref. Eriogonum ampullaceum)
  • Amsinc'kia: named for Wilhelm Amsinck (1752-1831), German businessman, senator and first Bürgermeister
      (Mayor) of Hamburg, patron of botany and the Botanical Garden in Hamburg. He attended the Johanneum and Academic High school in Hamburg and studied in Leipzig and Goettingen (1771-1774) and obtained a licentiate qualifying to take a doctorate. In 1786, he became a town councilor (alderman) managing various public offices, was elected Mayor in 1802, and made many improvements to Hamburg relating to land reclamation, educational improvement, and lighthouse construction. He took office during the French occupation of Hamburg and was particularly active
    in the negotiations with the French Republic. The genus Amsinckia was published by Johann Georg Christian Lehmann in 1831. (ref. genus Amsinckia)
  • Amso'nia: after Dr. John Amson possibly of Gloucester Co. or thereabouts, an 18th century Virginia physician who had settled there from England, who also served as an alderman and then as Mayor of Williamsburg from 1750 to 1751. It is uncertain when he died but it was likely sometime between 1761 and 1765. The genus Amsonia was published in 1788 by Thomas Walter. (ref. genus Amsonia)
  • amygdalin'um: with an almond odor

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